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Effect of pneumoperitoneum with warmed humidified or standard-temperature carbon dioxide during laparoscopy on core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, systemic inflammation, peritoneal response, and signs of postoperative pain in healthy mature dogs

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  • 1 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 5 Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 7 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of pneumoperitoneum created with warmed humidified CO2 (WHCO2) during laparoscopy on core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, systemic inflammation, peritoneal response, and signs of postoperative pain in healthy mature dogs.

ANIMALS 6 mature purpose-bred dogs.

PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, each dog was anesthetized twice, and pneumoperitoneum was created with standard-temperature CO2 (STCO2; 22°C and 0% relative humidity) and WHCO2 (37°C and 98% relative humidity). Data were collected during each procedure, including core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, and inflammatory biomarkers. Peritoneal biopsy specimens were collected and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Dogs were assessed for signs of postoperative pain.

RESULTS Mean core body temperature was significantly lower (35.2°C; 95% confidence interval, 34.5° to 35.8°C) with WHCO2 than with STCO2 (35.9°C; 95% confidence interval, 35.3° to 36.6°C) across all time points. Cardiac index increased during the procedure for both treatments but was not significantly different between treatments. Thromboelastography variables did not differ significantly between treatments as indicated by the coagulation index. Subjective evaluation of peritoneal biopsy specimens revealed mesothelial cell loss with STCO2. There was no significant difference in circulating C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 concentrations. There was a significant increase in the number of postoperative pain scores > 0 for the WHCO2 treatment versus the STCO2 treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Analysis of these data suggested that effects on evaluated variables attributable to the use of WHCO2 for creating pneumoperitoneum in healthy mature dogs undergoing laparoscopy did not differ from effects for the use of STCO2.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of pneumoperitoneum created with warmed humidified CO2 (WHCO2) during laparoscopy on core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, systemic inflammation, peritoneal response, and signs of postoperative pain in healthy mature dogs.

ANIMALS 6 mature purpose-bred dogs.

PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, each dog was anesthetized twice, and pneumoperitoneum was created with standard-temperature CO2 (STCO2; 22°C and 0% relative humidity) and WHCO2 (37°C and 98% relative humidity). Data were collected during each procedure, including core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, and inflammatory biomarkers. Peritoneal biopsy specimens were collected and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Dogs were assessed for signs of postoperative pain.

RESULTS Mean core body temperature was significantly lower (35.2°C; 95% confidence interval, 34.5° to 35.8°C) with WHCO2 than with STCO2 (35.9°C; 95% confidence interval, 35.3° to 36.6°C) across all time points. Cardiac index increased during the procedure for both treatments but was not significantly different between treatments. Thromboelastography variables did not differ significantly between treatments as indicated by the coagulation index. Subjective evaluation of peritoneal biopsy specimens revealed mesothelial cell loss with STCO2. There was no significant difference in circulating C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 concentrations. There was a significant increase in the number of postoperative pain scores > 0 for the WHCO2 treatment versus the STCO2 treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Analysis of these data suggested that effects on evaluated variables attributable to the use of WHCO2 for creating pneumoperitoneum in healthy mature dogs undergoing laparoscopy did not differ from effects for the use of STCO2.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Singh (amsingh@uoguelph.ca).