• 1. Bittencourt MA, Melleu FF, Marino-Neto J. Stress-induced core temperature changes in pigeons (Columba livia). Physiol Behav 2015;139:449458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Blas J. Stress in birds. In: Scanes CG, ed. Sturkie's avian physiology. 6th ed. Waltham, Mass: Academic Press, 2015;769810.

  • 3. Siegel HS. Physiological stress in birds. Bioscience 1980;30:529534.

  • 4. Greenacre CB, Lusby AL. Physiologic responses of Amazon parrots (Amazona species) to manual restraint. J Avian Med Surg 2004;18:1922.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Círule D, Krama T, Vrublevska J, et al. A rapid effect of handling on counts of white blood cells in a wintering passerine bird: a more practical measure of stress? J Ornithol 2012;153:161166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Parga ML, Pendl H, Forbes NA. The effect of transport on hematologic parameters in trained and untrained Harris's hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus) and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). J Avian Med Surg 2001;15:162169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Mans C, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Lahner LL, et al. Sedation and physiologic response to manual restraint after intranasal administration of midazolam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). J Avian Med Surg 2012;26:130139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Mans C. Sedation of pet birds. J Exot Pet Med 2014;23:152157.

  • 9. Schnellbacher RW, da Cunha AF, Beaufrère H, et al. Effects of dopamine and dobutamine on isoflurane-induced hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Am J Vet Res 2012;73:952958.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Lee A, Lennox A. Sedation and local anesthesia as an alternative to general anesthesia in 3 birds. J Exot Pet Med 2016;25:100105.

  • 11. Kubiak M, Roach L, Eatwell K. The influence of a combined butorphanol and midazolam pre-medication on anesthesia in psittacid species. J Avian Med Surg 2016;30:317323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Rankin D. Sedatives and tranquilizers. In: Grimm K, Lamont L, Tranquilli W, et al, eds. Lumb and Jones’ veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. 5th ed. Ames, Iowa: John Wiley & Sons, 2015;196206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Gilbert DB, Patterson TA, Rose SPR. Midazolam induces amnesia in a simple, one-trial, maze-learning task in young chicks. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1989;34:439442.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. da Silva EL, Trevisan GA, de Carvalho AL, et al. Sedative effects of intranasal or intramuscular administration of midazolam associated or not with butorphanol in an autochthonous parakeet (Melopsitacus undulatus). Rev Bras Cienc Vet 2017;24:37.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Gillis JC, Benfield P, Goa KL. Transnasal butorphanol. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in acute pain management. Drugs 1995;50:157175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Santangelo B, Micieli F, Marino F, et al. Plasma concentrations and sedative effects of a dexmedetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol combination after transnasal administration in healthy rabbits. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2016;39:408411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Doss GA, Mans C. Changes in physiologic parameters and effects of hooding in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) during manual restraint. J Avian Med Surg 2016;30:127132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Hornak S, Liptak T, Ledecky V, et al. A preliminary trial of the sedation induced by intranasal administration of midazolam alone or in combination with dexmedetomidine and reversal by atipamezole for a short-term immobilization in pigeons. Vet Anaesth Analg 2015;42:192196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Sadegh AB. Comparison of intranasal administration of xylazine, diazepam, and midazolam in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): clinical evaluation. J Zoo Wildl Med 2013;44:241244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Vesal N, Zare P. Clinical evaluation of intranasal benzodiazepines, alpha2-agonists and their antagonists in canaries. Vet Anaesth Analg 2006;33:143148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Assessment of sedation after intranasal administration of midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus)

Grayson A. Doss DVM1, Dustin M. Fink BA2, and Christoph Mans Dr Med Vet3
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 2 Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 3 Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare sedation in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) after intranasal administration of midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol.

ANIMALS 9 healthy adult cockatiels.

PROCEDURES A randomized, controlled, blinded, complete crossover study was conducted. Birds were assigned to 3 treatment groups. Midazolam (3 mg/kg), midazolam-butorphanol (3 mg/kg for each drug), or sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) was administered intranasally. Sedation quality was assessed at 3 time points by use of eye and body position; response to visual, auditory, and tactile stimulation; and response during manual restraint on the basis of eye position and struggling intensity. To evaluate attenuation of the manual restraint–induced stress response, heart rate, respiratory rate, and cloacal temperature were measured over a 15-minute period. Treatments were repeated after a minimum washout period of 7 days.

RESULTS Median onset of first sedation effects was 85 seconds (range, 60 to 120 seconds) for midazolam and 90 seconds (range, 45 to 180 seconds) for midazolam-butorphanol. Midazolam-butorphanol resulted in significantly less vigorous struggling during restraint than did midazolam or the control treatment. Heart rate did not differ significantly among treatments. The stress-induced increase in respiratory rate was significantly attenuated by midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol, whereas the increase in cloacal temperature was not attenuated by midazolam or midazolam-butorphanol.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Intranasal administration of midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol resulted in a rapid onset of sedation in cockatiels. Midazolam-butorphanol resulted in deeper sedation in both restrained and unrestrained birds than did midazolam alone. Midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol both provided safe and effective sedation in cockatiels.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare sedation in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) after intranasal administration of midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol.

ANIMALS 9 healthy adult cockatiels.

PROCEDURES A randomized, controlled, blinded, complete crossover study was conducted. Birds were assigned to 3 treatment groups. Midazolam (3 mg/kg), midazolam-butorphanol (3 mg/kg for each drug), or sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) was administered intranasally. Sedation quality was assessed at 3 time points by use of eye and body position; response to visual, auditory, and tactile stimulation; and response during manual restraint on the basis of eye position and struggling intensity. To evaluate attenuation of the manual restraint–induced stress response, heart rate, respiratory rate, and cloacal temperature were measured over a 15-minute period. Treatments were repeated after a minimum washout period of 7 days.

RESULTS Median onset of first sedation effects was 85 seconds (range, 60 to 120 seconds) for midazolam and 90 seconds (range, 45 to 180 seconds) for midazolam-butorphanol. Midazolam-butorphanol resulted in significantly less vigorous struggling during restraint than did midazolam or the control treatment. Heart rate did not differ significantly among treatments. The stress-induced increase in respiratory rate was significantly attenuated by midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol, whereas the increase in cloacal temperature was not attenuated by midazolam or midazolam-butorphanol.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Intranasal administration of midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol resulted in a rapid onset of sedation in cockatiels. Midazolam-butorphanol resulted in deeper sedation in both restrained and unrestrained birds than did midazolam alone. Midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol both provided safe and effective sedation in cockatiels.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Doss (gdoss@wisc.edu).