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Three-dimensional assessment of the influence of juvenile pubic symphysiodesis on the pelvic geometry of dogs

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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 4 Canine Assistants, 3160 Francis Rd, Milton, GA 30004.
  • | 5 Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the 3-D geometry of canine pelves and to characterize the long-term effects of juvenile pubic symphysiodesis (JPS) on pelvic geometry by comparing the pelvic configuration between littermates that did and did not undergo the procedure.

ANIMALS 24 Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, or Labrador Retriever–Golden Retriever crossbred service dogs from 13 litters.

PROCEDURES At 16 weeks old, puppies with a hip joint distraction index ≥ 0.5 were randomly assigned to undergo thermal JPS (n = 9), mechanical JPS (7), or a sham (control) surgical procedure (8). Ten years later, each dog underwent a CT scan of the pelvic region. Modeling software was used to create 3-D reconstructions from the CT scans, and various pelvic measurements were made and compared among the 3 treatments.

RESULTS Compared with the control treatment, thermal and mechanical JPS increased the hemipelvis acetabular angle by 4°, the acetabular angle of lateral opening by 5°, and the orientation of the medial acetabular wall in a transverse plane by 6°, which indicated that JPS increased dorsal femoral head coverage by the acetabulum. Both JPS procedures decreased the pelvic canal area by approximately 20% and acetabular inclination by 6° but did not alter acetabular retroversion.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that thermal and mechanical JPS were equally effective in altering the 3-D pelvic geometry of dogs. These findings may help guide future studies of alternatives for optimizing canine pelvic anatomy to minimize the risk of hip dysplasia and associated osteoarthritis.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the 3-D geometry of canine pelves and to characterize the long-term effects of juvenile pubic symphysiodesis (JPS) on pelvic geometry by comparing the pelvic configuration between littermates that did and did not undergo the procedure.

ANIMALS 24 Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, or Labrador Retriever–Golden Retriever crossbred service dogs from 13 litters.

PROCEDURES At 16 weeks old, puppies with a hip joint distraction index ≥ 0.5 were randomly assigned to undergo thermal JPS (n = 9), mechanical JPS (7), or a sham (control) surgical procedure (8). Ten years later, each dog underwent a CT scan of the pelvic region. Modeling software was used to create 3-D reconstructions from the CT scans, and various pelvic measurements were made and compared among the 3 treatments.

RESULTS Compared with the control treatment, thermal and mechanical JPS increased the hemipelvis acetabular angle by 4°, the acetabular angle of lateral opening by 5°, and the orientation of the medial acetabular wall in a transverse plane by 6°, which indicated that JPS increased dorsal femoral head coverage by the acetabulum. Both JPS procedures decreased the pelvic canal area by approximately 20% and acetabular inclination by 6° but did not alter acetabular retroversion.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that thermal and mechanical JPS were equally effective in altering the 3-D pelvic geometry of dogs. These findings may help guide future studies of alternatives for optimizing canine pelvic anatomy to minimize the risk of hip dysplasia and associated osteoarthritis.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Walters’ present address is Triangle Veterinary Referral Hospital, 608 Morreene Rd, Durham, NC 27705.

Dr. Marcellin-Little's present address is Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Address correspondence to Dr. Marcellin-Little (djmarcel@ucdavis.edu).