• 1. Babiuk LA, van Drunen Littel–van den Hurk S, Tikoo SK. Immunology of bovine herpesvirus 1 infection. Vet Microbiol 1996;53:3142.

  • 2. van Drunen Littel–van den Hurk S. Cell-mediated immune responses induced by BHV-1: rational vaccine design. Expert Rev Vaccines 2007;6:369380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. van Drunen Littel–van den Hurk S, Tikoo SK, van den Hurk JV, et al. Protective immunity in cattle following vaccination with conventional and marker bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV1) vaccines. Vaccine 1997;15:3644.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Denis M, Kaashoek MJ, van Oirschot JT, et al. Quantitative assessment of the specific CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferative response in bovine herpesvirus 1 immune cattle. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1994;42:275286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Davies DH, Carmichael LE. Role of cell-mediated immunity in the recovery of cattle from primary and recurrent infections with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. Infect Immun 1973;8:510518.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Campos M, Ohmann HB, Hutchings D, et al. Role of interferon-gamma in inducing cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1)–infected cells. Cell Immunol 1989;120:259269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Tikoo SK, Campos M, Popowych YI, et al. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to recombinant bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gD (gIV) in immune cattle: identification of a T cell epitope. Viral Immunol 1995;8:1925.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Guzman E, Price S, Poulsom H, et al. Bovine γδ T cells: cells with multiple functions and important roles in immunity. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2012;148:161167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Hoek A, Rutten VP, Kool J, et al. Subpopulations of bovine WC1+ γδ T cells rather than CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ T cells act as immune regulatory cells ex vivo. Vet Res 2009;40:6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Rouse BT, Babiuk LA. Host defense mechanisms against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus; in vitro stimulation of sensitized lymphocytes by virus antigen. Infect Immun 1974;10:681687.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Endsley JJ, Quade MJ, Terharr B, et al. BHV-1–specific CD4+, CD8+, and γδ T cells in calves vaccinated with one dose of a modified live BHV-1 vaccine. Viral Immunol 2002;15:385393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Lemaire M, Meyer G, Baranowski E, et al. Production of bovine herpesvirus type 1–seronegative latent carriers by administration of a live-attenuated vaccine in passively immunized calves. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38:42334238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Lemaire M, Schynts F, Meyer G, et al. Latency and reactivation of a glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus type 1 vaccine: influence of virus load and effect of specific maternal antibodies. Vaccine 2001;19:47954804.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Chase CCL, Fulton RW, O'Toole D, et al. Bovine herpesvirus 1 modified live virus vaccines for cattle reproduction: balancing protection with undesired effects. Vet Microbiol 2017;206:6977.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Stevens ET, Zimmerman AD, Buterbaugh RE, et al. The induction of a cell-mediated immune response to bovine viral diarrhea virus with an adjuvanted inactivated vaccine. Vet Ther 2009;10:E1E8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Zimmerman AD, Buterbaugh RE, Herbert JM, et al. Efficacy of bovine herpesvirus-1 inactivated vaccine against abortion and stillbirth in pregnant heifers. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;231:13861389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Newcomer BW, Cofield LG, Walz PH, et al. Prevention of abortion in cattle following vaccination against bovine herpesvirus 1: a meta-analysis. Prev Vet Med 2017;138:18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Woolums AR, Siger L, Johnson S, et al. Rapid onset of protection following vaccination of calves with multivalent vaccines containing modified-live or modified-live and killed BHV-1 is associated with virus specific interferon gamma production. Vaccine 2003;21:11581164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. Paris: Office International des Epizooties, 2015;1415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Bissey LL, Williams AK, Bolin S, et al. Comparison of cytopathic and noncytopathic isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus by oligonucleotide fingerprinting. J Vet Diagn Invest 1991;3:1621.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Littell RC, Henry PR, Ammerman CB. Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. J Anim Sci 1998;76:12161231.

  • 22. Quade MJ, Roth JA. Antigen-specific in vitro activation of T-lymphocyte subsets of cattle immunized with a modified live bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine. Viral Immunol 1999;12:921.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Platt R, Widel PW, Kesl LD, et al. Comparison of humoral and cellular immune response to a pentavalent modified live virus vaccine in three age groups of calves with maternal antibodies, before and after BVDV type 2 challenge. Vaccine 2009;27:45084519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Townsend J, Duffus WP, Williams DL, et al. Immune production of interferon by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from calves infected with BHV1 and PI3 viruses. Res Vet Sci 1988;45:198205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Wentink GH, Rutten VP, van Exsel AC, et al. Failure of an in vitro lymphoproliferative assay specific for bovine herpes virus type 1 to detect immunized or latently infected animals. Vet Q 1990;12:175182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Miller-Edge M, Splitter G. Patterns of bovine T cell-mediated immune responses to bovine herpesvirus 1. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1986;13:301319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Rutten VP, Wentink GH, de Jong WA, et al. Determination of BHV1-specific immune reactivity in naturally infected and vaccinated animals by lymphocyte proliferation assays. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1990;25:259267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. van Drunen Littel–van den Hurk S, Myers D, Doig PA, et al. Identification of a mutant herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) in post-arrival outbreaks of IBR in feedlot calves and protection with conventional vaccination. Can J Vet Res 2001;65:8188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Tough DF, Borrow P, Sprent J. Induction of bystander T cell proliferation by viruses and type I interferon in vivo. Science 1996;272:19471950.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Li Causi E, Parikh SC, Chudley L, et al. Vaccination expands antigen-specific CD4+ memory T cells and mobilizes bystander central memory T cells. PLoS One 2015;10:e0136717.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Elgueta R, de Vries VC, Noelle RJ. The immortality of humoral immunity. Immunol Rev 2010;236:139150.

  • 32. Walz PH, Givens MD, Rodning SP, et al. Evaluation of reproductive protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 afforded by annual revaccination with modified-live viral or combination modified-live/killed viral vaccines after primary vaccination with modified-live viral vaccine. Vaccine 2017;35:10461054.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Bovine rhinotracheitis vaccine, killed virus. 9 USC §113.216.

  • 34. Roth JA, Carter DP. Comparison of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines for rapid induction of immunity. Vet Ther 2000;1:220228.

  • 35. Straub OC, Mawhinney IC. Vaccination to protect calves against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Vet Rec 1988;122:407411.

Advertisement

Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to bovine herpesvirus type 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in calves following administration of a killed-virus vaccine and bovine herpesvirus type 1 challenge

View More View Less
  • 1 Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc, 2621 North Belt Hwy, St Joseph, MO 64506.
  • | 2 RTI LLC, 801 32nd Ave, Brookings, SD 57006.
  • | 3 RTI LLC, 801 32nd Ave, Brookings, SD 57006.
  • | 4 RTI LLC, 801 32nd Ave, Brookings, SD 57006.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007.
  • | 6 RTI LLC, 801 32nd Ave, Brookings, SD 57006.
  • | 7 RTI LLC, 801 32nd Ave, Brookings, SD 57006.
  • | 8 RTI LLC, 801 32nd Ave, Brookings, SD 57006.
  • | 9 Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate cell-mediated and humoral immune responses of calves receiving 2 doses of a dual-adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 (BVDV1) and 2 (BVDV2) before and after exposure to BHV1.

ANIMALS 24 Holstein steers negative for anti-BHV1 antibodies and proliferative cell-mediated immune responses against BHV1 and BVDV.

PROCEDURES Calves were randomly assigned to 3 groups. The vaccinated group (n = 10) received 2 doses of vaccine on days 0 and 21. Control (n = 10) and seeder (4) groups remained unvaccinated. Calves were commingled during the study except for the 3-day period (days 53 to 55) when seeders were inoculated with BHV1 (1.04 × 107 TCID50, IV) to serve as a source of virus for challenge (days 56 through 84). Rectal temperature and clinical illness scores were monitored, and blood and nasal specimens were obtained for determination of clinicopathologic and immunologic variables.

RESULTS After BHV1 challenge, mean rectal temperature and clinical illness scores were lower for vaccinates than controls. In vaccinates, antibody titers against BHV1 and BVDV2, but not BVDV1, increased after challenge as did extracellular and intracellular interferon-γ expression, indicating a T helper 1 memory response. Additional results of cell marker expression were variable, with no significant increase or decrease associated with treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Calves administered 2 doses of a killed-virus vaccine developed cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to BHV1 and BVDV, which were protective against disease when those calves were subsequently exposed to BHV1.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate cell-mediated and humoral immune responses of calves receiving 2 doses of a dual-adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 (BVDV1) and 2 (BVDV2) before and after exposure to BHV1.

ANIMALS 24 Holstein steers negative for anti-BHV1 antibodies and proliferative cell-mediated immune responses against BHV1 and BVDV.

PROCEDURES Calves were randomly assigned to 3 groups. The vaccinated group (n = 10) received 2 doses of vaccine on days 0 and 21. Control (n = 10) and seeder (4) groups remained unvaccinated. Calves were commingled during the study except for the 3-day period (days 53 to 55) when seeders were inoculated with BHV1 (1.04 × 107 TCID50, IV) to serve as a source of virus for challenge (days 56 through 84). Rectal temperature and clinical illness scores were monitored, and blood and nasal specimens were obtained for determination of clinicopathologic and immunologic variables.

RESULTS After BHV1 challenge, mean rectal temperature and clinical illness scores were lower for vaccinates than controls. In vaccinates, antibody titers against BHV1 and BVDV2, but not BVDV1, increased after challenge as did extracellular and intracellular interferon-γ expression, indicating a T helper 1 memory response. Additional results of cell marker expression were variable, with no significant increase or decrease associated with treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Calves administered 2 doses of a killed-virus vaccine developed cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to BHV1 and BVDV, which were protective against disease when those calves were subsequently exposed to BHV1.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Van Anne's present address is Van Anne Veterinary Service, Gering, NE 69341.

Address correspondence to Dr. Chase (christopher.chase@sdstate.edu).