A technique of needle redirection at a single craniolateral site for injection of three compartments of the equine stifle joint

Meredith R. A. Herdrich Orthopaedic Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Shelby E. Arrieta Orthopaedic Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Brad B. Nelson Orthopaedic Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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David D. Frisbie Orthopaedic Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Valerie J. Moorman Orthopaedic Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine accuracy for a technique of needle redirection at a single craniolateral site for injection of 3 compartments of the equine stifle joint, describe the external needle position, and identify the location of the needle tip within each joint compartment.

SAMPLE 24 equine cadaver stifle joints.

PROCEDURES Stifle joints were placed in a customized stand. After the needle was placed, external needle position was measured and recorded. Each joint compartment (medial and lateral compartments of the femorotibial joint and the femoropatellar joint) was injected with a solution containing iodinated contrast medium, water, and dye. Radiography, assessment of intra-articular location of the needle tip, and gross dissection were performed to determine success of entering each joint compartment. Student t tests and an ANOVA were used to compare mean values.

RESULTS Overall accuracy was 19 of 24 (79.1%), and accuracy for individual joint compartments was at least 21 of 24 (87.5%). Mean depth of needle insertion to access each compartment of the stifle joint was 5.71 cm. Mean angle of insertion (relative to the long axis of the tibia) was 82.1°, 80.3°, and 18.5° for the medial compartment of the femorotibial joint, lateral compartment of the femorotibial joint, and femoropatellar joint, respectively, and 28° medial, 7.3° lateral, and 1.3° lateral for the medial compartment of the femorotibial joint, lateral compartment of the femorotibial joint, and femoropatellar joint, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results supported that this was an accurate technique for successful injection of the 3 equine stifle joint compartments.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine accuracy for a technique of needle redirection at a single craniolateral site for injection of 3 compartments of the equine stifle joint, describe the external needle position, and identify the location of the needle tip within each joint compartment.

SAMPLE 24 equine cadaver stifle joints.

PROCEDURES Stifle joints were placed in a customized stand. After the needle was placed, external needle position was measured and recorded. Each joint compartment (medial and lateral compartments of the femorotibial joint and the femoropatellar joint) was injected with a solution containing iodinated contrast medium, water, and dye. Radiography, assessment of intra-articular location of the needle tip, and gross dissection were performed to determine success of entering each joint compartment. Student t tests and an ANOVA were used to compare mean values.

RESULTS Overall accuracy was 19 of 24 (79.1%), and accuracy for individual joint compartments was at least 21 of 24 (87.5%). Mean depth of needle insertion to access each compartment of the stifle joint was 5.71 cm. Mean angle of insertion (relative to the long axis of the tibia) was 82.1°, 80.3°, and 18.5° for the medial compartment of the femorotibial joint, lateral compartment of the femorotibial joint, and femoropatellar joint, respectively, and 28° medial, 7.3° lateral, and 1.3° lateral for the medial compartment of the femorotibial joint, lateral compartment of the femorotibial joint, and femoropatellar joint, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results supported that this was an accurate technique for successful injection of the 3 equine stifle joint compartments.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Moorman (valerie.moorman@colostate.edu).
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