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Effects of changes in analytic variables and contrast medium on estimation of glomerular filtration rates by computed tomography in healthy dogs

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  • 1 Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan 183–8509.
  • | 2 Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan 183–8509.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan 890–0065.
  • | 4 Laboratory of Veterinary Radiology, Azabu University School of Veterinary Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan 252–5201.
  • | 5 Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan 183–8509.
  • | 6 Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan 183–8509.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of changes in analytic variables and contrast medium osmolality on glomerular filtration rate estimated by CT (CT-GFR) in dogs.

ANIMALS 4 healthy anesthetized Beagles.

PROCEDURES GFR was estimated by inulin clearance, and dogs underwent CT-GFR with iodinated contrast medium (iohexol or iodixanol) in a crossover-design study. Dynamic renal CT scanning was performed. Patlak plot analysis was used to calculate GFR with the renal cortex or whole kidney selected as the region of interest. The renal cortex was analyzed just prior to time of the second cortical attenuation peak. The whole kidney was analyzed 60, 80, 100, and 120 seconds after the appearance of contrast medium. Automated GFR calculations were performed with preinstalled perfusion software including 2 noise reduction levels (medium and strong). The CT-GFRs were compared with GFR estimated by inulin clearance.

RESULTS There was no significant difference in CT-GFR with iohexol versus iodixanol in any analyses. The CT-GFR at the renal cortex, CT-GFR for the whole kidney 60 seconds after appearance of contrast medium, and CT-GFR calculated by perfusion software with medium noise reduction did not differ significantly from GFR estimated by inulin clearance. The CT-GFR was underestimated at ≥ 80 seconds after contrast medium appearance (whole kidney) and when strong noise reduction was used with perfusion CT software.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Selection of the renal cortex as region of interest or use of the 60-second time point for whole-kidney evaluation yielded the best CT-GFR results. The perfusion software used produced good results with appropriate noise reduction.

IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE The finding that excessive noise reduction caused underestimation of CT-GFR suggests that this factor should also be considered in CT-GFR examination of human patients.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Kishimoto (285copernicium@gmail.com).