Evaluation of a portable media device for use in determining postural stability in standing horses

Valerie J. Moorman Orthopaedic Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Search for other papers by Valerie J. Moorman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Christopher E. Kawcak Orthopaedic Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Search for other papers by Christopher E. Kawcak in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
, and
Melissa R. King Orthopaedic Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Search for other papers by Melissa R. King in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the ability of an accelerometer within a commercially available portable media device (PMD) to measure changes in postural stability of standing horses during various stance conditions and to compare these results with data obtained by use of a stationary force platform.

ANIMALS 7 clinically normal horses.

PROCEDURES A PMD was mounted on a surcingle; the surcingle was placed immediately caudal to the highest point of the shoulders (withers). Each horse was examined while standing on a stationary force platform system in a normal square stance, forelimb base-narrow stance, and normal square stance at 5 and 10 minutes after sedation induced by IV administration of xylazine hydrochloride. A minimum of 5 trials were conducted for each stance condition. Ranges of craniocaudal and mediolateral motion as well as SDs were collected for the PMD and force platform system. Analyses were performed with mixed-model ANOVAs, and correlation coefficients were calculated.

RESULTS Stance condition significantly altered craniocaudal accelerations measured by use of the PMD, all craniocaudal and mediolateral displacements of the center of pressure, and velocities measured by use of the stationary force platform. For both the PMD and force platform, SDs were significantly affected by stance condition in both craniocaudal and mediolateral directions. Correlation coefficients between the systems for all variables were low to moderate (r = 0.18 to 0.58).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Body-mounted PMDs should be investigated for use in assessment of postural stability in horses with neuromuscular abnormalities.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the ability of an accelerometer within a commercially available portable media device (PMD) to measure changes in postural stability of standing horses during various stance conditions and to compare these results with data obtained by use of a stationary force platform.

ANIMALS 7 clinically normal horses.

PROCEDURES A PMD was mounted on a surcingle; the surcingle was placed immediately caudal to the highest point of the shoulders (withers). Each horse was examined while standing on a stationary force platform system in a normal square stance, forelimb base-narrow stance, and normal square stance at 5 and 10 minutes after sedation induced by IV administration of xylazine hydrochloride. A minimum of 5 trials were conducted for each stance condition. Ranges of craniocaudal and mediolateral motion as well as SDs were collected for the PMD and force platform system. Analyses were performed with mixed-model ANOVAs, and correlation coefficients were calculated.

RESULTS Stance condition significantly altered craniocaudal accelerations measured by use of the PMD, all craniocaudal and mediolateral displacements of the center of pressure, and velocities measured by use of the stationary force platform. For both the PMD and force platform, SDs were significantly affected by stance condition in both craniocaudal and mediolateral directions. Correlation coefficients between the systems for all variables were low to moderate (r = 0.18 to 0.58).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Body-mounted PMDs should be investigated for use in assessment of postural stability in horses with neuromuscular abnormalities.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Moorman (valerie.moorman@colostate.edu).
  • 1. Røgind H, Lykkegaard JJ, Bliddal H, et al. Postural sway in normal subjects aged 20–70 years. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2003;23:171176.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. De Carli P, Patrizi M, Pepe L, et al. Postural control and risk of falling in bipodalic and monopodalic stabilometric tests of healthy subjects before, after visuo-proprioceptive vestibule-postural rehabilitation and at 3 months thereafter: role of the proprioceptive system. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2010;30:182189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. King MR, Haussler KK, Kawcak CE, et al. Effect of underwater treadmill exercise on postural sway in horses with experimentally induced carpal joint osteoarthritis. Am J Vet Res 2013;74:971982.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Melzer I, Benjuya N, Kaplanski J. Postural stability in the elderly: a comparison between fallers and non-fallers. Age Ageing 2004;33:602607.

  • 5. Lehmann JF, Boswell S, Price R, et al. Quantitative evaluation of sway as an indicator of functional balance in post-traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990;71:955962.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Mancini M, Carlson-Kuhta P, Zampieri C, et al. Postural sway as a marker of progression in Parkinson's disease: a pilot longitudinal study. Gait Posture 2012;36:471476.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Mancini M, Salarian A, Carlson-Kuhta P, et al. ISway: a sensitive, valid and reliable measure of postural control. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2012;9:59.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. James EG. Short-term differential training decreases postural sway. Gait Posture 2014;39:172176.

  • 9. Baierle T, Kromer T, Petermann C, et al. Balance ability and postural stability among patients with painful shoulder disorders and healthy controls. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2013;14:282.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Nauwelaerts S, Malone SR, Clayton HM. Development of postural balance in foals. Vet J 2013;198:e70e74.

  • 11. Clayton HM, Buchholz R, Nauwelaerts S. Relationships between morphological and stabilographic variables in standing horses. Vet J 2013;198:e65e69.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Clayton HM, Nauwelaerts S. Effect of blindfolding on centre of pressure variables in healthy horses during quiet standing. Vet J 2014;199:365369.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Whitney SL, Roche JL, Marchetti GF, et al. A comparison of accelerometry and center of pressure measures during computerized dynamic posturography: a measure of balance. Gait Posture 2011;33:594599.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Masani K, Vette AH, Abe MO, et al. Center of pressure velocity reflects body acceleration rather than body velocity during quiet standing. Gait Posture 2014;39:946952.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Mayagoitia RE, Lotters JC, Veltink PH, et al. Standing balance evaluation using a triaxial accelerometer. Gait Posture 2002;16:5559.

  • 16. Turcato A, Ramat S. Predicting losses of balance during upright stance: evaluation of a novel approach based on wearable accelerometers, in Proceedings. 32nd Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2010; 49184921.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Deshmukh PM, Russell CM, Lucarino LE, et al. Enhancing clinical measures of postural stability with wearable sensors, in Proceedings. 34th Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2012; 45214524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. LeMoyne R, Mastroianni T, Cozza M, et al. Implementation of an iPhone as a wireless accelerometer for quantifying gait characteristics, in Proceedings. 32nd Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2010; 38473851.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Nolan M, Mitchell JR, Doyle-Baker PK. Validity of the Apple iPhone/iPod Touch as an accelerometer-based physical activity monitor: a proof-of-concept study. J Phys Act Health 2014;11:759769.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Furrer M, Bichsel L, Niederer M, et al. Validation of a smartphone-based measurement tool for the quantification of level walking. Gait Posture 2015;42:289294.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. LeMoyne R, Mastroianni T, Cozza M, et al. Implementation of an iPhone for characterizing Parkinson's disease tremor through a wireless accelerometer application, in Proceedings. 32nd Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2010; 49544958.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. LeMoyne R, Mastroianni T, Grundfest W, et al. Implementation of an iPhone wireless accelerometer application for the quantification of reflex response, in Proceedings. 35th Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2013; 46584661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Pfau T, Weller R. Comparison of a standalone consumer grade smartphone with a specialist inertial measurement unit for quantification of movement symmetry in the trotting horse. Equine Vet J 2017;49:124129.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. del Rosario MB, Redmond SJ, Lovell NH. Tracking the evolution of smartphone sensing for monitoring human movement. Sensors (Basel) 2015;15:1890118933.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Day BL, Steiger MJ, Thompson PD, et al. Effect of vision and stance width on human body motion when standing: implications for afferent control of lateral sway. J Physiol 1993;469:479499.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Valverde A. Alpha-2 agonists as pain therapy in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2010;26:515532.

  • 27. England GCW, Clarke KW. Alpha2 adrenoceptor agonists in the horse—a review. Br Vet J 1996;152:641657.

  • 28. Bialski D, Lanovaz JL, Bohart GV, et al. Effect of detomidine on postural sway in horses. Equine Comp Exerc Physiol 2004;1:4550.

  • 29. Doheny EP, McGrath D, Greene BR, et al. Displacement of centre of mass during quiet standing assessed using accelerometry in older fallers and non-fallers, in Proceedings. 34th Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2012; 33003303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Peham C, Licka T, Girtler D, et al. The influence of lameness on equine stride length consistency. Vet J 2001;162:153157.

  • 31. Moorman VJ, Reiser RF II, Mahaffey CA, et al. Use of an inertial measurement unit to assess the effect of forelimb lameness on three-dimensional hoof orientation in horses at a walk and trot. Am J Vet Res 2014;75:800808.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. O'Sullivan M, Blake C, Cunningham C, et al. Correlation of accelerometry with clinical balance tests in older fallers and non-fallers. Age Ageing 2009;38:308313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Parsons KJ, Pfau T, Ferrari M, et al. High-speed gallop locomotion in the Thoroughbred racehorse. II. The effect of incline on centre of mass movement and mechanical energy fluctuation. J Exp Biol 2008;211:945956.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Buchner HH, Obermuller S, Scheidl M. Body centre of mass movement in the sound horse. Vet J 2000;160:225234.

  • 35. Clayton HM, Bialski DE, Lanovaz JL, et al. Assessment of the reliability of a technique to measure postural sway in horses. Am J Vet Res 2003;64:13541359.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Le Clair K, Riach C. Postural stability measures: what to measure and for how long. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 1996;11:176178.

Advertisement