Three-dimensional inverse dynamics of the forelimb of Beagles at a walk and trot

Emanuel Andrada Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie mit Phyletischem Museum, Friedrich-Schiller University, 07743 Jena, Germany.

Search for other papers by Emanuel Andrada in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Lars Reinhardt Department of Science of Motion, Friedrich-Schiller University, 07743 Jena, Germany.

Search for other papers by Lars Reinhardt in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Karin Lucas Klinik für Kleintiere, Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

Search for other papers by Karin Lucas in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MSc
, and
Martin S. Fischer Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie mit Phyletischem Museum, Friedrich-Schiller University, 07743 Jena, Germany.

Search for other papers by Martin S. Fischer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To perform 3-D inverse dynamics analysis of the entire forelimb of healthy dogs during a walk and trot.

ANIMALS 5 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES The left forelimb of each dog was instrumented with 19 anatomic markers. X-ray fluoroscopy was used to optimize marker positions and perform scientific rotoscoping for 1 dog. Inverse dynamics were computed for each dog during a walk and trot on the basis of data obtained from an infrared motion-capture system and instrumented quad-band treadmill. Morphometric data were obtained from a virtual reconstruction of the left forelimb generated from a CT scan of the same dog that underwent scientific rotoscoping.

RESULTS Segmental angles, torque, and power patterns were described for the scapula, humerus, ulna, and carpus segments in body frame. For the scapula and humerus, the kinematics and dynamics determined from fluoroscopy-based data varied substantially from those determined from the marker-based data. The dominant action of scapular rotation for forelimb kinematics was confirmed. Directional changes in the torque and power patterns for each segment were fairly consistent between the 2 gaits, but the amplitude of those changes was often greater at a trot than at a walk.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that control of the forelimb joints of dogs is similar for both a walk and trot. Rotation of the forelimb around its longitudinal axis and motion of the scapula should be reconsidered in the evaluation of musculoskeletal diseases, especially before and after treatment or rehabilitation.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To perform 3-D inverse dynamics analysis of the entire forelimb of healthy dogs during a walk and trot.

ANIMALS 5 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES The left forelimb of each dog was instrumented with 19 anatomic markers. X-ray fluoroscopy was used to optimize marker positions and perform scientific rotoscoping for 1 dog. Inverse dynamics were computed for each dog during a walk and trot on the basis of data obtained from an infrared motion-capture system and instrumented quad-band treadmill. Morphometric data were obtained from a virtual reconstruction of the left forelimb generated from a CT scan of the same dog that underwent scientific rotoscoping.

RESULTS Segmental angles, torque, and power patterns were described for the scapula, humerus, ulna, and carpus segments in body frame. For the scapula and humerus, the kinematics and dynamics determined from fluoroscopy-based data varied substantially from those determined from the marker-based data. The dominant action of scapular rotation for forelimb kinematics was confirmed. Directional changes in the torque and power patterns for each segment were fairly consistent between the 2 gaits, but the amplitude of those changes was often greater at a trot than at a walk.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that control of the forelimb joints of dogs is similar for both a walk and trot. Rotation of the forelimb around its longitudinal axis and motion of the scapula should be reconsidered in the evaluation of musculoskeletal diseases, especially before and after treatment or rehabilitation.

  • 1. Muybridge E. Animal locomotion: an electrophotographic investigation of consecutive phases of animal movements. 1872–1875. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1887.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Griffon DJ, McLaughlin RM Jr, Roush JK. Vertical ground reaction force redistribution during experimentally induced shoulder lameness in dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 1994; 7: 2326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Lee DV, Bertram JE, Todhunter RJ. Acceleration and balance in trotting dogs. J Exp Biol 1999; 202: 35653573.

  • 4. Bertram JE, Lee DV, Case HN, et al. Comparison of the trotting gaits of Labrador Retrievers and Greyhounds. Am J Vet Res 2000; 61: 832838.

  • 5. Williams SB, Wilson AM, Daynes J, et al. Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the thoracic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing Greyhound (Canis familiaris). J Anat 2008; 213: 373382.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Carrier DR, Deban SM, Fischbein T. Locomotor function of forelimb protractor and retractor muscles of dogs: evidence of strut-like behavior at the shoulder. J Exp Biol 2008; 211: 150162.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Budsberg SC, Verstraete MC, Soutas-Little RW. Force plate analysis of the walking gait in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 1987; 48: 915918.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Riggs CM, DeCamp CE, Soutas-Little RW, et al. Effects of subject velocity on force plate–measured ground reaction forces in healthy Greyhounds at the trot. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 15231526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Brebner NS, Moens NM, Runciman JR. Evaluation of a treadmill with integrated force plates for kinetic gait analysis of sound and lame dogs at a trot. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2006; 19: 205212.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Fanchon L, Valette JP, Sanaa M, et al. The measurement of ground reaction force in dogs trotting on a treadmill: an investigation of habituation. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2006; 19: 8186.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Bockstahler BA, Skalicky M, Peham C, et al. Reliability of ground reaction forces measured on a treadmill system in healthy dogs. Vet J 2007; 173: 373378.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Abdelhadi J, Wefstaedt P, Galindo-Zamora V, et al. Load redistribution in walking and trotting Beagles with induced forelimb lameness. Am J Vet Res 2013; 74: 3439.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Arshavsky YI, Kots YM, Orlovskii G, et al. Investigation of the biomechanics of running by the dog. Biophysics (Oxf) 1965; 10: 737746.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Goslow GE Jr, Seeherman HJ, Taylor CR, et al. Electrical activity and relative length changes of dog limb muscles as a function of speed and gait. J Exp Biol 1981; 94: 1542.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Brown CM, Dalzell B. Dog locomotion and gait analysis. Wheat Ridge, Colo: Hoflin Publishing Ltd, 1986; 160.

  • 16. Hottinger HA, DeCamp CE, Olivier NB, et al. Noninvasive kinematic analysis of the walk in healthy large-breed dogs. Am J Vet Res 1996; 57: 381388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Carrier DR, Gregersen CS, Silverton NA. Dynamic gearing in running dogs. J Exp Biol 1998; 201: 31853195.

  • 18. Fischer MS, Lilje KE. Dogs in motion. Dortmund, Germany: VDH Service GmbH, 2011; 1208.

  • 19. Bresler B, Frankel J. The forces and moments in the leg during level walking. Trans Asme 1950; 72: 2535.

  • 20. Nielsen C, Stover SM, Schulz KS, et al. Two-dimensional link-segment model of the forelimb of dogs at a walk. Am J Vet Res 2003; 64: 609617.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Burton NJ, Dobney JA, Owen MR, et al. Joint angle, moment and power compensations in dogs with fragmented medial coronoid process. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2008; 21: 110118.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Burton NJ, Owen MR, Kirk LS, et al. Conservative versus arthroscopic management for medial coronoid process disease in dogs: a prospective gait evaluation. Vet Surg 2011; 40: 972980.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Cavagna GA, Heglund NC, Taylor CR. Mechanical work in terrestrial locomotion: two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure. Am J Physiol 1977; 233:R243R261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Blickhan R. The spring-mass model for running and hopping. J Biomech 1989; 22: 12171227.

  • 25. Harrison SM, Whitton RC, King M, et al. Forelimb muscle activity during equine locomotion. J Exp Biol 2012; 215: 29802991.

  • 26. Reinschmidt C, van den Bogert AJ, Nigg BM, et al. Effect of skin movement on the analysis of skeletal knee joint motion during running. J Biomech 1997; 30: 729732.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Günther M, Sholukha VA, Kessler D, et al. Dealing with skin motion and wobbling masses in inverse dynamics. J Mech Med Biol 2003; 3: 309335.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Brainerd EL, Baier DB, Gatesy SM, et al. X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM): precision, accuracy and applications in comparative biomechanics research. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol 2010; 313: 262279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Winter DA. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2009; 1384.

  • 30. Headrick JF, Zhang S, Millard RP, et al. Use of an inverse dynamics method to describe the motion of the canine pelvic limb in three dimensions. Am J Vet Res 2014; 75: 544553.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Torres BT, Moëns NM, Al-Nadaf S, et al. Comparison of overground and treadmill-based gaits of dogs. Am J Vet Res 2013; 74: 535541.

  • 32. Eng JJ, Winter DA. Kinetic analysis of the lower limbs during walking: what information can be gained from a three-dimensional model? J Biomech 1995; 28: 753758.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Andrada E, Mämpel J, Schmidt A, et al. From biomechanics of rats' inclined locomotion to a climbing robot. Int J Des Nat Ecodyn 2013; 8: 191212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Tokuriki M. Electromyographic and joint-mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. I. Walk. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi 1973; 35: 433436.

  • 35. Tokuriki M. Electromyographic and joint-mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. II. Trot. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi 1973; 35: 525533.

  • 36. Tokuriki M. Electromyographic and joint-mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. III. Gallop. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi 1974; 36: 121132.

  • 37. Geyer H, Seyfarth A, Blickhan R. Compliant leg behaviour explains basic dynamics of walking and running. Proc Biol Sci 2006; 273: 28612867.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Andrada E, Rode C, Sutedja Y, et al. Trunk orientation causes asymmetries in leg function in small bird terrestrial locomotion. Proc Biol Sci 2014; 281: 1797.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Andrada E, Haase D, Sutedja Y, et al. Mixed gaits in small avian terrestrial locomotion. Sci Rep 2015; 5: 13636.

  • 40. Griffon DJ. Canine gait analysis: a decade of computer assisted technology. Vet J 2008; 178: 159160.

  • 41. Carrier DR, Deban SM, Fischbein T. Locomotor function of the pectoral girdle ‘muscular sling’ in trotting dogs. J Exp Biol 2006; 209: 22242237.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Fischer MS. Kinematics, EMG, and inverse dynamics of the therian forelimb—a synthetic approach. Zool Anz 1999; 238: 4154.

  • 43. Fischer MS. Locomotory organs of mammals: new mechanics and feed-back pathways but conservative central control. Zoology 2001; 103: 230239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. McFadyen BJ, Winter DA. An integrated biomechanical analysis of normal stair ascent and descent. J Biomech 1988; 21: 733744.

  • 45. Payne RC, Veenman P, Wilson AM. The role of the extrinsic thoracic limb muscles in equine locomotion. J Anat 2005; 206: 193204.

  • 46. Colborne GR, Lanovaz JL, Sprigings EJ, et al. Forelimb joint moments and power during the walking stance phase of horses. Am J Vet Res 1998; 59: 609614.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47. Clayton HM, Lanovaz JL, Schamhardt HC, et al. Net joint moments and powers in the equine forelimb during the stance phase of the trot. Equine Vet J 1998; 30: 384389.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48. Witte H, Biltzinger J, Hackert R, et al. Torque patterns of the limbs of small therian mammals during locomotion on flat ground. J Exp Biol 2002; 205: 13391353.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49. Gregersen CS, Silverton NA, Carrier DR. External work and potential for elastic storage at the limb joints of running dogs. J Exp Biol 1998; 201: 31973210.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50. Wilson AM, Watson JC, Lichtwark GA. Biomechanics: a catapult action for rapid limb protraction. Nature 2003; 421: 3536.

  • 51. Hildebrand M, Hurley JP. Energy of the oscillating legs of a fast-moving cheetah, pronghorn, jackrabbit, and elephant. J Morphol 1985; 184: 2331.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52. Ackland DC, Pandy MG. Lines of action and stabilizing potential of the shoulder musculature. J Anat 2009; 215: 184197.

Advertisement