Interictal diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging features of cats with familial spontaneous epilepsy

Shunta Mizoguchi Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan-chou, Musashinoshi, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.

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Daisuke Hasegawa Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan-chou, Musashinoshi, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.

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Yuji Hamamoto Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan-chou, Musashinoshi, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.

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Yoshihiko Yu Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan-chou, Musashinoshi, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.

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Takayuki Kuwabara Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan-chou, Musashinoshi, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.

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Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan-chou, Musashinoshi, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.

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Michio Fujita Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan-chou, Musashinoshi, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion and perfusion MRI of the cerebrum in cats with familial spontaneous epilepsy (FSECs) and identify microstructural and functional deficit zones in affected cats.

ANIMALS 19 FSECs and 12 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES Diffusion-weighted, diffusion tensor, and perfusion-weighted MRI of the cerebrum were performed during interictal periods in FSECs. Imaging findings were compared between FSECs and control cats. Diffusion (apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy) and perfusion (relative cerebral blood volume [rCBV], relative cerebral blood flow [rCBF], and mean transit time) variables were measured bilaterally in the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, parietal cortex gray matter, and subcortical white matter. Asymmetry of these variables in each region was also evaluated and compared between FSECs and control cats.

RESULTS The apparent diffusion coefficient of the total amygdala of FSECs was significantly higher, compared with that of control cats. The fractional anisotropy of the right side and total hippocampus of FSECs was significantly lower, compared with that of control cats. The left and right sides and total hippocampal rCBV and rCBF were significantly lower in FSECs than in control cats. The rCBV and rCBF of the parietal cortex gray matter in FSECs were significantly lower than in control cats.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In FSECs, diffusion and perfusion MRI detected microstructural changes and hypoperfusion (lowered function) in the cerebrum during interictal periods from that of healthy cats. These findings indicated that diffusion and perfusion MRI may be useful for noninvasive evaluation of epileptogenic foci in cats.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion and perfusion MRI of the cerebrum in cats with familial spontaneous epilepsy (FSECs) and identify microstructural and functional deficit zones in affected cats.

ANIMALS 19 FSECs and 12 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES Diffusion-weighted, diffusion tensor, and perfusion-weighted MRI of the cerebrum were performed during interictal periods in FSECs. Imaging findings were compared between FSECs and control cats. Diffusion (apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy) and perfusion (relative cerebral blood volume [rCBV], relative cerebral blood flow [rCBF], and mean transit time) variables were measured bilaterally in the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, parietal cortex gray matter, and subcortical white matter. Asymmetry of these variables in each region was also evaluated and compared between FSECs and control cats.

RESULTS The apparent diffusion coefficient of the total amygdala of FSECs was significantly higher, compared with that of control cats. The fractional anisotropy of the right side and total hippocampus of FSECs was significantly lower, compared with that of control cats. The left and right sides and total hippocampal rCBV and rCBF were significantly lower in FSECs than in control cats. The rCBV and rCBF of the parietal cortex gray matter in FSECs were significantly lower than in control cats.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In FSECs, diffusion and perfusion MRI detected microstructural changes and hypoperfusion (lowered function) in the cerebrum during interictal periods from that of healthy cats. These findings indicated that diffusion and perfusion MRI may be useful for noninvasive evaluation of epileptogenic foci in cats.

Contributor Notes

Drs. Mizoguchi, Hasegawa, and Hamamoto contributed equally to this work.

Address correspondence to Dr. Hasegawa (disk-hsgw@nvlu.ac.jp).
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