Measured and calculated variables of global oxygenation in healthy neonatal foals

David M. Wong Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Kate L. Hepworth-Warren Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Beatrice T. Sponseller Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Joan M. Howard Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Chong Wang Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess multiple central venous and arterial blood variables that alone or in conjunction with one another reflect global oxygenation status in healthy neonatal foals.

ANIMALS 11 healthy neonatal foals.

PROCEDURES Central venous and arterial blood samples were collected from healthy neonatal foals at 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours after birth. Variables measured from central venous and arterial blood samples included oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, partial pressure of oxygen, lactate concentration, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and pH. Calculated variables included venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide gap, estimated oxygen extraction ratio, ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to the fraction of inspired oxygen, bicarbonate concentration, base excess, and blood oxygen content.

RESULTS Significant differences between arterial and central venous blood obtained from neonatal foals were detected for several variables, particularly partial pressure of oxygen, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and oxygen content. In addition, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in central venous blood samples was significantly higher than the value for corresponding arterial blood samples. Several temporal differences were detected for other variables.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study provided information about several variables that reflect global oxygenation in healthy neonatal foals. Values for these variables in healthy foals can allow for comparison with values for critically ill foals in future studies. Comparison of these variables between healthy and ill foals may aid in treatment decisions and prognosis of clinical outcome for critically ill foals.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess multiple central venous and arterial blood variables that alone or in conjunction with one another reflect global oxygenation status in healthy neonatal foals.

ANIMALS 11 healthy neonatal foals.

PROCEDURES Central venous and arterial blood samples were collected from healthy neonatal foals at 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours after birth. Variables measured from central venous and arterial blood samples included oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, partial pressure of oxygen, lactate concentration, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and pH. Calculated variables included venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide gap, estimated oxygen extraction ratio, ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to the fraction of inspired oxygen, bicarbonate concentration, base excess, and blood oxygen content.

RESULTS Significant differences between arterial and central venous blood obtained from neonatal foals were detected for several variables, particularly partial pressure of oxygen, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and oxygen content. In addition, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in central venous blood samples was significantly higher than the value for corresponding arterial blood samples. Several temporal differences were detected for other variables.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study provided information about several variables that reflect global oxygenation in healthy neonatal foals. Values for these variables in healthy foals can allow for comparison with values for critically ill foals in future studies. Comparison of these variables between healthy and ill foals may aid in treatment decisions and prognosis of clinical outcome for critically ill foals.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Wong (dwong@iastate.edu).
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