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Effect of a high-fat–high-cholesterol diet on gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs

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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Bunkyoku, Tokyo, Japan.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Bunkyoku, Tokyo, Japan.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Bunkyoku, Tokyo, Japan.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Bunkyoku, Tokyo, Japan.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Bunkyoku, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

OBJCTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary lipid overload on bile acid metabolism and gallbladder motility in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed a high-fat–high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) for a period of 2 weeks. After a 4-month washout period, dogs were fed the other diet for 2 weeks. Before and at the end of each feeding period, the concentrations of each of the gallbladder bile acids, cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced gallbladder motility, and bile acid metabolism–related hepatic gene expression were examined in all dogs.

RESULTS The HFCD significantly increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations. The HFCD also increased the concentration of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and decreased the concentration of taurocholic acid in bile and reduced gallbladder contractility, whereas the LFD significantly decreased the concentration of taurodeoxycholic acid in bile. Gene expression analysis revealed significant elevation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA expression after feeding the HFCD for 2 weeks, but the expression of other genes was unchanged.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Feeding the HFCD and LFD for 2 weeks induced changes in gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs. In particular, feeding the HFCD caused an increase in plasma total cholesterol concentration, an increase of hydrophobic bile acid concentration in bile, and a decrease in gallbladder sensitivity to CCK. These results suggested that similar bile acid compositional changes and gallbladder hypomotility might be evident in dogs with hyperlipidemia.

Abstract

OBJCTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary lipid overload on bile acid metabolism and gallbladder motility in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed a high-fat–high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) for a period of 2 weeks. After a 4-month washout period, dogs were fed the other diet for 2 weeks. Before and at the end of each feeding period, the concentrations of each of the gallbladder bile acids, cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced gallbladder motility, and bile acid metabolism–related hepatic gene expression were examined in all dogs.

RESULTS The HFCD significantly increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations. The HFCD also increased the concentration of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and decreased the concentration of taurocholic acid in bile and reduced gallbladder contractility, whereas the LFD significantly decreased the concentration of taurodeoxycholic acid in bile. Gene expression analysis revealed significant elevation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA expression after feeding the HFCD for 2 weeks, but the expression of other genes was unchanged.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Feeding the HFCD and LFD for 2 weeks induced changes in gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs. In particular, feeding the HFCD caused an increase in plasma total cholesterol concentration, an increase of hydrophobic bile acid concentration in bile, and a decrease in gallbladder sensitivity to CCK. These results suggested that similar bile acid compositional changes and gallbladder hypomotility might be evident in dogs with hyperlipidemia.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Kanemoto (kanemoto@dvms.co.jp).