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Effect of track surface firmness on the development of musculoskeletal injuries in French Trotters during four months of harness race training

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  • 1 Unité 957, BPLC, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
  • | 2 CIRALE, Unité 957, BPLC, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 14430 Goustranville, France.
  • | 3 Unité 957, BPLC, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
  • | 4 CIRALE, Unité 957, BPLC, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 14430 Goustranville, France.
  • | 5 Unité 957, BPLC, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
  • | 6 CIRALE, Unité 957, BPLC, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 14430 Goustranville, France.
  • | 7 CIRALE, Unité 957, BPLC, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 14430 Goustranville, France.
  • | 8 Unité 957, BPLC, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
  • | 9 Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Department, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
  • | 10 Unité 957, BPLC, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
  • | 11 Unité 957, BPLC, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of track surface firmness on the development of musculoskeletal injuries in French Trotters during 4 months of race training.

ANIMALS 12 healthy 3-year-old French Trotters.

PROCEDURES Horses were paired on the basis of sex and body mass. Horses within each pair were randomly assigned to either a hard-track or soft-track group. The counterclockwise training protocol was the same for both groups. Surface firmness of each track was monitored throughout the training period. Radiography, ultrasonography, MRI, and scintigraphy were performed on all 4 limbs of each horse before and after 2 and 4 months of training. Lesions were described, and lesion severity was classified with a 5-point system, where 0 = no lesions and 4 = severe lesion.

RESULTS 86 lesions were identified, of which 46 (53.5%) were classified as potentially clinically relevant (grade, ≥ 2). Of the 18 moderate and severe lesions, 15 were identified in horses of the hard-track group, and 10 of those were in forelimbs. Moderate to severe tendinopathy of the superficial digital flexor tendon of the forelimb developed in 3 of the 6 horses of the hard-track group but none of the horses of the soft-track group. Metatarsal condyle injuries were more frequent in horses of the hard-track group than horses of the soft-track group. Severe lesions were identified only in left limbs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that track surface firmness is a risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries in horses trained for harness racing.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of track surface firmness on the development of musculoskeletal injuries in French Trotters during 4 months of race training.

ANIMALS 12 healthy 3-year-old French Trotters.

PROCEDURES Horses were paired on the basis of sex and body mass. Horses within each pair were randomly assigned to either a hard-track or soft-track group. The counterclockwise training protocol was the same for both groups. Surface firmness of each track was monitored throughout the training period. Radiography, ultrasonography, MRI, and scintigraphy were performed on all 4 limbs of each horse before and after 2 and 4 months of training. Lesions were described, and lesion severity was classified with a 5-point system, where 0 = no lesions and 4 = severe lesion.

RESULTS 86 lesions were identified, of which 46 (53.5%) were classified as potentially clinically relevant (grade, ≥ 2). Of the 18 moderate and severe lesions, 15 were identified in horses of the hard-track group, and 10 of those were in forelimbs. Moderate to severe tendinopathy of the superficial digital flexor tendon of the forelimb developed in 3 of the 6 horses of the hard-track group but none of the horses of the soft-track group. Metatarsal condyle injuries were more frequent in horses of the hard-track group than horses of the soft-track group. Severe lesions were identified only in left limbs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that track surface firmness is a risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries in horses trained for harness racing.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Emond's present address is Clinique Vétérinaire, 6 place René Bouret, 08250 Grandpré, France.

Dr. Dupays’ present address is Clinique vétérinaire du Molinel, 89 rue du Molinel, 59700 Marcq en Baroeul, France.

Address correspondence to Dr. Crevier-Denoix (nathalie.crevier-denoix@vet-alfort.fr).