• 1. Brown CJ, Donnelly TM. Rodent husbandry and care. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2004;7: 201225.

  • 2. Grzimek B. Hamsters. In: McDade MC, ed. Grzimek's animal life encyclopedia. 2nd ed. Farmington Hills, Mich: Thomson Gale Press, 2008; 239249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. AVMA. 2012 US pet ownership & demographic sourcebook. Schaumburg, Ill: Membership & Field Services, AVMA, 2012.

  • 4. Bedford PG. The aetiology of canine glaucoma. Vet Rec 1980;107: 7682.

  • 5. Cunningham AJ, Barry P. Intraocular pressure—physiology and implications for anesthetic management. Can Anaesth Soc J 1986;33: 195208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Ofri R, Horowitz IH, Kass PH. Tonometry in three herbivorous wildlife species. Vet Ophthalmol 1998;1: 2124.

  • 7. Stodtmeister R. Applanation tonometry and correction according to corneal thickness. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1998;76: 319324.

  • 8. Shah S. Accurate intraocular pressure measurement: the myth of modern ophthalmology? Ophthalmology 2000;107: 18051807.

  • 9. Del Sole MJ, Sande PH, Bernades JM, et al. Circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in cats. Vet Ophthalmol 2007;10: 155161.

  • 10. Varga M. Anaesthesia and analgesia. In: Harcourt-Brown F, ed. Textbook of rabbit medicine. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Press, 2002; 178202.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Heatley J, Camille Harris M. Hamsters and gerbils. In: Mitchell M, Tully TN Jr, eds. Manual of exotic pet practice. St Louis: Saunders/Elsevier, 2008; 406432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Rajaei SM, Mood MA, Sadjadi R, et al. Results of selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests for clinically normal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Am J Vet Res 2016;77: 7276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Wang X, Dong J, Wu Q. Twenty-four-hour measurement of IOP in rabbits using rebound tonometer. Vet Ophthalmol 2013;16: 423428.

  • 14. Benozzi J, Nahum LP, Campanelli JL, et al. Effect of hyaluronic acid on intraocular pressure in rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43: 21962200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Liu JH, Dacus AC. Endogenous hormonal changes and circadian elevation of intraocular pressure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1991;32: 496500.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Willis MA, Anderson DE, Gemensky AJ, et al. Evaluation of intraocular pressure in eyes of clinically normal llamas and alpacas. Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 15421544.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Wilkie DA, Latimer CA. Effects of topical administration of 2.0% pilocarpine on intraocular pressure and pupil size in cats. Am J Vet Res 1991;52: 441444.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Bito LZ, Merritt SQ, DeRousseau CJ. Intraocular pressure of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). I. An initial survey of two free-breeding colonies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1979;18: 785793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Chen CL, Gelatt KN, Gum GG. Serum hydrocortisone (cortisol) values in glaucomatous and normotensive Beagles. Am J Vet Res 1980;41: 15161518.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Wright M. Pharmacologic effects of ketamine and its use in veterinary medicine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982;180: 14621471.

  • 21. Haskins SC, Farver TB, Platz JD. Ketamine in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1985;46: 18551869.

  • 22. Hartsfield SM. Advantages and guidelines for using ketamine for induction of anesthesia. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1992;22: 266267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Lin HC. Dissociative anesthetics. In: Thurmon JC, Tranquilli WJ, Benson GJ, eds. Veterinary anaesthesia. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins, 1996; 241296.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Kovalcuka L, Bigele E, Bandere D, et al. The effects of ketamine hydrochloride and diazepam on the intraocular pressure and pupil diameter of the dog's eye. Vet Ophthalmol 2013;16: 2934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Holve DL, Gum GG, Pritt SL. Effect of sedation with xylazine and ketamine on intraocular pressure in New Zealand White rabbits. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2013;52: 488490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Ghaffari MS, Moghaddassi AP. Effects of ketamine-diazepam and ketamine-acepromazine combinations on intraocular pressure in rabbits. Vet Anaesth Analg 2010;37: 269272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Karabaǧli M, Özer K, Şahin I. The effects of xylazine-ketamine anaesthesia on intraocular pressure in dogs. Istanbul Univ Vet Fak Derg 2014;40: 260263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Hofmeister EH, Mosunic CB, Torres BT, et al. Effects of ketamine, diazepam, and their combination on intraocular pressures in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 2006;67: 11361139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Trim CM, Colbern G, Martin C. Effect of xylazine and ketamine on intraocular pressure in horses. Vet Rec 1985;117: 442443.

  • 30. van der Woerdt A, Gilger B, Wilke D, et al. Effect of auriculopalpebral nerve block and intravenous administration of xylazine on intraocular pressure and corneal thickness in horses. Am J Vet Res 1995;56: 155158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Burke JA, Potter DE. The ocular effects of xylazine in rabbits, cats, and monkeys. J Ocul Pharmacol 1986;2: 921.

  • 32. Newell FW. Current trends in ophthalmic anesthesia. The second Walter S. Atkinson lecture. Ophthalmic Surg 1975;6: 1522.

  • 33. Blumberg D, Congdon N, Jampel H, et al. The effects of sevoflurane and ketamine on intraocular pressure in children during examination under anesthesia. Am J Ophthalmol 2007;143: 494499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Johnson TV, Fan S, Toris CB. Rebound tonometry in conscious, conditioned mice avoids the acute and profound effects of anesthesia on intraocular pressure. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2008;24: 175185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Nagdeve NG, Yaddanapudi S, Pandav SS. The effect of different doses of ketamine on intraocular pressure in anesthetized children. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2006;43: 219223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Effects of diurnal variation and anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

Seyed Mehdi Rajaei DVM, DVSc1, Maneli Ansari Mood DVM, DVSc2, Mohammad Reza Paryani DVM, PhD3, and David L. Williams MA, VetMD, PhD4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
  • | 3 Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0ES, England.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine effects of diurnal variation and anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure (IOP) in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

ANIMALS

90 healthy adult Syrian hamsters (45 males and 45 females).

PROCEDURES

IOP was measured with a rebound tonometer. In phase 1, IOP was measured in all hamsters 3 times during a 24-hour period (7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm). In phase 2, hamsters were assigned to 5 groups (18 animals [9 males and 9 females]/group). Each group received an anesthetic agent or combination of anesthetic agents (ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, diazepam, ketamine-diazepam [KD], or ketamine-xylazine [KX] groups) administered via the IP route. The IOP was measured before (time 0 [baseline]) and 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after administration of drugs.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD IOP values were 2.58 ± 0.87 mm Hg, 4.46 ± 1.58 mm Hg, and 5.96 ± 1.23 mm Hg at 7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm, respectively. Mean baseline IOP was 6.25 ± 0.28 mm Hg, 6.12 ± 0.23 mm Hg, 5.75 ± 0.64 mm Hg, 5.12 ± 1.40 mm Hg, and 4.50 ± 1.30 mm Hg for the ketamine, xylazine, diazepam, KD, and KX groups, respectively. A significant decrease in IOP, compared with baseline IOP, was detected in only the KX group at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drug administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Maximum IOP in Syrian hamsters was detected at night. The ketamine-xylazine anesthetic combination significantly decreased IOP in Syrian hamsters.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Rajaei (mehdi_l3r@hotmail.com).