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Assessment of novel digital and smartphone goniometers for measurement of canine stifle joint angles

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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate accuracy and reliability of 3 novel goniometers for measurement of canine stifle joint angles and compare the results with those obtained with a universal goniometer (UG).

SAMPLE 8 pelvic limbs from 4 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES Each limb was secured to a wooden platform at 3 arbitrarily selected fixed stifle joint angles. Goniometry was performed with 2 smartphone-based applications (novel goniometers A and B), a digital goniometer (novel goniometer C), and a UG; 3 evaluators performed measurements in triplicate for each angle with each device. Results were compared with stifle joint angle measurements on radiographs (used as a gold standard). Accuracy was determined by calculation of bias and total error, coefficients of variation were calculated to estimate reliability, and strength of linear association between radiographic and goniometer measurements was assessed by calculation of correlation coefficients.

RESULTS Mean coefficient of variation was lowest for the UG (4.88%), followed by novel goniometers B (7.37%), A (7.57%), and C (12.71%). Correlation with radiographic measurements was highest for the UG (r = 0.97), followed by novel goniometers B (0.93), A (0.90), and C (0.78). Constant bias was present for all devices except novel goniometer B. The UG and novel goniometer A had positive constant bias; novel goniometer C had negative constant bias. Total error at 50° and 100° angles was > 5% for all devices.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE None of the devices accurately represented radiographically measured stifle joint angles. Additional veterinary studies are indicated prior to the use of novel goniometers in dogs.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Duerr (Felix.Duerr@colostate.edu).

Dr. Freund's present address is Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Dr. Kieves' present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.