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Comparative pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride and ceftiofur sodium after administration to water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

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  • 1 College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, People's Republic of China, 530005.
  • | 2 Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS 38677.
  • | 3 College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, People's Republic of China, 530005.
  • | 4 College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, People's Republic of China, 530005.
  • | 5 College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, People's Republic of China, 530005.
  • | 6 Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS 38677.
  • | 7 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 100193.
  • | 8 College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, People's Republic of China, 530005.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics and bioavailability after administration of ceftiofur hydrochloride and ceftiofur sodium to water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

ANIMALS 5 healthy adult water buffalo (3 males and 2 nonlactating females).

PROCEDURES All animals received a dose (2.2 mg/kg) of 3 ceftiofur products (2 commercially available suspensions of ceftiofur hydrochloride [CEF1 and CEF2, IM] and ceftiofur sodium [CEF3, IV]). Blood samples were collected for up to 196 hours. Concentrations of ceftiofur in plasma were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated on the basis of noncompartmental methods.

RESULTS Most of the pharmacokinetic parameters, except for bioavailability and the area under the concentration–time curve extrapolated to infinity, were significantly different between the 2 products administered IM. Mean ± SD bioavailability of CEF1 and CEF2 was 89.57 ± 32.84% and 86.28 ± 11.49%, respectively, which indicated good absorption of both products. In addition, there was a longer drug residence time for CEF1 than for CEF2. Data analysis for CEF1 revealed a flip-flop phenomenon.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, there was good absorption of CEF1, and CEF1 had a longer drug residence time in vivo than did CEF2. On the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility, a dosage regimen of 2.2 mg/kg administered at 48- and 36-hour intervals for CEF1 and CEF2, respectively, could be an appropriate choice for the treatment of buffalo with infectious diseases.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics and bioavailability after administration of ceftiofur hydrochloride and ceftiofur sodium to water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

ANIMALS 5 healthy adult water buffalo (3 males and 2 nonlactating females).

PROCEDURES All animals received a dose (2.2 mg/kg) of 3 ceftiofur products (2 commercially available suspensions of ceftiofur hydrochloride [CEF1 and CEF2, IM] and ceftiofur sodium [CEF3, IV]). Blood samples were collected for up to 196 hours. Concentrations of ceftiofur in plasma were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated on the basis of noncompartmental methods.

RESULTS Most of the pharmacokinetic parameters, except for bioavailability and the area under the concentration–time curve extrapolated to infinity, were significantly different between the 2 products administered IM. Mean ± SD bioavailability of CEF1 and CEF2 was 89.57 ± 32.84% and 86.28 ± 11.49%, respectively, which indicated good absorption of both products. In addition, there was a longer drug residence time for CEF1 than for CEF2. Data analysis for CEF1 revealed a flip-flop phenomenon.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, there was good absorption of CEF1, and CEF1 had a longer drug residence time in vivo than did CEF2. On the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility, a dosage regimen of 2.2 mg/kg administered at 48- and 36-hour intervals for CEF1 and CEF2, respectively, could be an appropriate choice for the treatment of buffalo with infectious diseases.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. He (ahong18@vip.sina.com).