• 1. Carey K, Aiken SW, DiResta GR, et al. Radiographic and clinical changes of the patellar tendon following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy: 94 cases (2001–2003). Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2005; 18: 235242.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Mattern KL, Berry CR, Peck JN, et al. Radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation of the patellar ligament following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2006; 47: 185191.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Pacchiana PD, Morris E, Gillings SL, et al. Surgical and postoperative complications associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture: 397 cases (1998–2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222: 184193.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Section VII: the hindlimb. In:Piermattei DL, Johnson KA, eds. An atlas of surgical approaches to the bones and joints of the dog and cat. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2004; 338355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Kowaleski MP, Boudrieau RJ, Pozzi A. The stifle joint. In: Tobias KM, Johnston SA, eds. Veterinary surgery small animal. St Louis: Elsevier, 2012 980.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Degner DA, Walshaw R, Fowler JD, et al. Surgical approaches to recipient vessels of the head and neck for microvascular free tissue transfer in dogs. Vet Surg 2004; 33: 200208.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Degner DA, Walshaw R, Fowler JD, et al. Surgical approaches to recipient vessels of the fore- and hind limbs for microvascular free tissue transfer in dogs. Vet Surg 2005; 34: 297309.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Moore DC, Leblanc CW, Muller R, et al. Physiologic weightbearing increases new vessel formation during distraction osteogenesis: a micro-tomographic imaging study. J Orthop Res 2003; 21: 489496.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Nonaka H, Akima M, Hatori T, et al. Microvasculature of the human cerebral white matter: arteries of the deep white matter. Neuropathology 2003; 23: 111118.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Ndoye J-M, Dia A, Ndiaye A, et al. Arteriography of three models of gastric oesophagoplasty: the whole stomach, a wide gastric tube and a narrow gastric tube. Surg Radiol Anat 2006; 28: 429437.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Alm A, Stromberg B. Vascular anatomy of the patellar and cruciate ligaments. Acta Chir Scand Suppl 1974; 445: 2535.

  • 12. Evans HE. The heart and arteries. In: Evans HE, ed. Miller's anatomy of the dog. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1993; 663666.

  • 13. Soldado F, Reina F, Yuguero M, et al. Clinical anatomy of the arterial supply of the human patellar ligament. Surg Radiol Anat 2002; 24: 177182.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Kanamiya T, Naito M, Ikari N, et al. The effect of surgical dissections on the blood flow to the tibial tubercle. J Orthop Res 2001; 19: 113116.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Kanamiya T, Naito M, Hara M, et al. Tibial tubercle transfer on a medial periosteal pedicle—a report of a new technique. The Knee 2006; 13: 469473.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Khan KM, Bonar F, Desmond PM, et al. Patellar tendinosis (jumper's knee): findings at histopathologic examination, US, and MR imaging. Victorian Institute of Sport Tendon Study Group. Radiology 1996; 200: 821827.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Cook JL, Malliaras P, De Luca J, et al. Vascularity and pain in the patellar tendon of adult jumping athletes: a 5 month longitudinal study. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39: 458461.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Cook JL, Malliaras P, De Luca J, et al. Neovascularization and pain in abnormal patellar tendons of active jumping athletes. Clin J Sports Med 2004; 14: 296299.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Gisslen K, Alfredsom H. Neovascularisation and pain in jumper's knee: a prospective clinical and sonographic study in elite junior volleyball players. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39: 423428.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Ohberg L, Lorentzon R, Alfredson H. Neovascularization in Achilles tendons with painful tendinosis but not in normal tendons: an ultrasonographic investigation. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2001; 9: 233238.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Hamilton B, Purdam C. Patellar tendinosis as an adaptive process: a new hypothesis. Br J Sports Med 2004; 38: 758761.

  • 22. Fenwick SA, Hazleman BL, Riley GP. The vasculature and its role in the damaged and healing tendon. Arthritis Res 2002; 4: 252260.

  • 23. Yu JS, Popp JE, Kaeding CC, et al. Correlation of MR imaging and pathologic findings in athletes undergoing surgery for chronic patellar tendinitis. Am J Roentgenol 1995; 165: 115118.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Ohberg L, Alfredson H. Sclerosing therapy in chronic Achilles tendon insertional pain—results of a pilot study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2003; 11: 339343.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Ohberg L, Alfredson H. Ultrasound guided sclerosis of neovessels in painful chronic Achilles tendinosis: pilot study of a new treatment. Br J Sports Med 2002; 36: 173177.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Ex vivo evaluation of the effect of various surgical procedures on blood delivery to the patellar tendon of dogs

Matthew D. Johnson DVM, MVSc1, Cindy L. Shmon DVM, DVSc2, Kathleen A. Linn DVM, MS3, and Baljit Singh PhD4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.
  • | 2 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.
  • | 3 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.
  • | 4 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of arthrotomy alone or in combination with osteotomy of the proximal portion of the tibia on blood delivery to the patellar tendon of dogs.

SAMPLE 24 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES One hind limb from each cadaver was assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: medial arthrotomy (MA; MA group), lateral arthrotomy (LA; LA group), MA and LA with tibial tuberosity transposition (MALA group), and MA with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO; TPLO group). The contralateral hind limb served as the control sample. Contrast solution (barium [33%], India ink [17%], and saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [50%]) was injected through an 8F catheter inserted in the caudal portion of the abdominal aorta. Limbs were radiographed to allow examination of vascular filling. The patella, patellar tendon, and tibial crest were harvested, radiographed to allow examination of tissue vascular filling, and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Vessels perfused with contrast solution were counted in sections obtained from the proximal, middle, and distal regions of each patellar tendon.

RESULTS Vessel counts did not differ significantly among the 3 tendon regions. Compared with results for the control group, delivery of contrast solution to the patellar tendon was significantly decreased in the MALA and TPLO groups but was not changed in the MA or LA groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that surgical procedures used to treat cranial cruciate injuries (ie, TPLO) and patellar luxation decreased blood delivery to the patellar tendon of canine cadavers, at least acutely.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of arthrotomy alone or in combination with osteotomy of the proximal portion of the tibia on blood delivery to the patellar tendon of dogs.

SAMPLE 24 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES One hind limb from each cadaver was assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: medial arthrotomy (MA; MA group), lateral arthrotomy (LA; LA group), MA and LA with tibial tuberosity transposition (MALA group), and MA with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO; TPLO group). The contralateral hind limb served as the control sample. Contrast solution (barium [33%], India ink [17%], and saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [50%]) was injected through an 8F catheter inserted in the caudal portion of the abdominal aorta. Limbs were radiographed to allow examination of vascular filling. The patella, patellar tendon, and tibial crest were harvested, radiographed to allow examination of tissue vascular filling, and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Vessels perfused with contrast solution were counted in sections obtained from the proximal, middle, and distal regions of each patellar tendon.

RESULTS Vessel counts did not differ significantly among the 3 tendon regions. Compared with results for the control group, delivery of contrast solution to the patellar tendon was significantly decreased in the MALA and TPLO groups but was not changed in the MA or LA groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that surgical procedures used to treat cranial cruciate injuries (ie, TPLO) and patellar luxation decreased blood delivery to the patellar tendon of canine cadavers, at least acutely.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Johnson's present address is the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608.

Address correspondence to Dr. Johnson (mdjohnson@ufl.edu).