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Collateral circulation in ferrets (Mustela putorius) during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava

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  • 1 Southern California Veterinary Specialty Hospital, 1371 Reynolds Ave, Irvine, CA 92614.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Studies, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 3 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Studies, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Studies, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Studies, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 7 Department of Clinical Studies, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 8 Department of Clinical Studies, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 9 Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology, Medical Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether extent of collateral circulation would change during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in ferrets (Mustela putorius), a pressure change would occur caudal to the occlusion, and differences would exist between the sexes with respect to those changes.

ANIMALS 8 adult ferrets (4 castrated males and 4 spayed females).

PROCEDURES Ferrets were anesthetized. A balloon occlusion catheter was introduced through a jugular vein, passed into the CVC by use of fluoroscopy, positioned cranial to the right renal vein, and inflated for 20 minutes. Venography was performed 5 and 15 minutes after occlusion. Pressure in the CVC caudal to the occlusion was measured continuously. A CBC, plasma biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were performed immediately after the procedure and 2 or 3 days later.

RESULTS All 8 ferrets survived the procedure; no differences were apparent between the sexes. Vessels providing collateral circulation were identified in all ferrets, indicating blood flow to the paravertebral venous plexus. Complications observed prior to occlusion included atrial and ventricular premature contractions. Complications after occlusion included bradycardia, seizures, and extravasation of contrast medium. Mean baseline CVC pressure was 5.4 cm H2O. During occlusion, 6 ferrets had a moderate increase in CVC pressure (mean, 24.3 cm H2O) and 2 ferrets had a marked increase in CVC pressure to > 55.0 cm H2O.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caval occlusion for 20 minutes was performed in healthy ferrets with minimal adverse effects noted within the follow-up period and no apparent differences between sexes. The CVC pressure during occlusion may be prognostic in ferrets undergoing surgical ligation of the CVC, which commonly occurs during adrenal tumor resection.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether extent of collateral circulation would change during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in ferrets (Mustela putorius), a pressure change would occur caudal to the occlusion, and differences would exist between the sexes with respect to those changes.

ANIMALS 8 adult ferrets (4 castrated males and 4 spayed females).

PROCEDURES Ferrets were anesthetized. A balloon occlusion catheter was introduced through a jugular vein, passed into the CVC by use of fluoroscopy, positioned cranial to the right renal vein, and inflated for 20 minutes. Venography was performed 5 and 15 minutes after occlusion. Pressure in the CVC caudal to the occlusion was measured continuously. A CBC, plasma biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were performed immediately after the procedure and 2 or 3 days later.

RESULTS All 8 ferrets survived the procedure; no differences were apparent between the sexes. Vessels providing collateral circulation were identified in all ferrets, indicating blood flow to the paravertebral venous plexus. Complications observed prior to occlusion included atrial and ventricular premature contractions. Complications after occlusion included bradycardia, seizures, and extravasation of contrast medium. Mean baseline CVC pressure was 5.4 cm H2O. During occlusion, 6 ferrets had a moderate increase in CVC pressure (mean, 24.3 cm H2O) and 2 ferrets had a marked increase in CVC pressure to > 55.0 cm H2O.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caval occlusion for 20 minutes was performed in healthy ferrets with minimal adverse effects noted within the follow-up period and no apparent differences between sexes. The CVC pressure during occlusion may be prognostic in ferrets undergoing surgical ligation of the CVC, which commonly occurs during adrenal tumor resection.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Calicchio and Dr. Bennett's present address is Lauderdale Veterinary Specialists, 3217 NW 10th Terr, Ste 303, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33317.

Dr. Laraio's present address is Banfìeld Pet Hospital, 11183 S Parker Rd, Unit H, Parker, CO 80134.

Dr. Weisse's present address is Interventional Radiology Service, The Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.

Dr. Zwingenberger's present address is School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Dr. Rosenthal's present address is School of Veterinary Medicine, St. Matthew's University, Grand Cayman, British West Indies.

Dr. Johnston's present address is College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Dr. Campbell's present address is Peak Veterinary Specialists and Emergency, 4650 Royal Vista Cir, Ste 100, Windsor, CO 80528.

Dr. Solomon's present address is Infiniti Medical LLC, 525 Middlefield Rd, Ste 150, Menlo Park, CA 94025.

Address correspondence to Dr. Calicchio (kcalicchio@lauderdalevets.com).