• 1. Chandarana H, Taouli B. Diffusion and perfusion imaging of the liver. Eur J Radiol 2010; 76: 348358.

  • 2. Feeney DA, Anderson KL, Ziegler LE, et al. Statistical relevance of ultrasonographic criteria in the assessment of diffuse liver disease in dogs and cats. Am J Vet Res 2008; 69: 212221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Marks AL, Hecht S, Stokes JE, et al. Effects of gadoxetate disodium (EOVIST®) contrast on magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the liver in clinically healthy dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2014; 55: 286291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Fields EL, Robertson ID, Osborne JA, et al. Comparison of abdominal computed tomography and abdominal ultrasound in sedated dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2012; 53: 513517.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Drost WT, Henry GA, Meinkoth JH, et al. Quantification of hepatic and renal cortical echogenicity in clinically normal cats. Am J Vet Res 2000; 61: 10161020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Gaschen L. Update on hepatobiliary imaging. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2009; 39: 439467.

  • 7. Koh DM, Padhani AR. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the liver: parametric assessments beyond morphology. Magn Reson Imaging Clin North Am 2010; 18: 565585.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Taouli B, Vilgrain V, Dumont E, et al. Evaluation of liver diffusion isotropy and characterization of focal hepatic lesions with two single-shot echo-planar MR imaging sequences: prospective study in 66 patients. Radiology 2003; 226: 7178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Qayyum A. Diffusion-weighted imaging in the abdomen and pelvis: concepts and applications. Radiographics 2009; 29: 17971810.

  • 10. Taouli B, Koh DM. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the liver. Radiology 2010; 254: 4766.

  • 11. Lewin M, Poujol-Robert A, Boëlle PY, et al. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2007; 46: 658665.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Demir OI, Obuz F, Sagol O, et al. Contribution of diffusion-weighted MRI to the differential diagnosis of hepatic masses. Diagn Interv Radiol 2007; 13: 8186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Papanikolaou N, Gourtsoyianni S, Yarmenitis S, et al. Comparison between two-point and four-point methods for quantification of apparent diffusion coefficient of normal liver parenchyma and focal lesions. Value of normalization with spleen. Eur J Radiol 2010; 73: 305309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Namimoto T, Yamashita Y, Sumi S, et al. Focal liver masses: characterization with diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR imaging. Radiology 1997; 204: 739744.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Kim T, Murakami T, Takahashi S, et al. Diffusion-weighted single-shot echoplanar MR imaging for liver disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1999; 173: 393398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Bruegel M, Holzapfel K, Gaa J, et al. Characterization of focal liver lesions by ADC measurements using a respiratory triggered diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar MR imaging technique. Eur Radiol 2008; 18: 477485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Gourtsoyianni S, Papanikolaou N, Yarmenitis S, et al. Respiratory gated diffusion-weighted imaging of the liver: value of apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in the differentiation between most commonly encountered benign and malignant focal liver lesions. Eur Radiol 2008; 18: 486492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Hartmann A, Söffler C, Failing K, et al. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the normal canine brain. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2014; 55: 592598.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Yoshikawa T, Kawamitsu H, Mitchell DG, et al. ADC measurement of abdominal organs and lesions using parallel imaging technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006; 187: 15211530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Cece H, Ercan A, Yildiz S, et al. The use of DWI to assess spleen and liver quantitative ADC changes in the detection of liver fibrosis stages in chronic viral hepatitis. Eur J Radiol 2013; 82: e307e312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Chen X, Qin L, Pan D, et al. Liver diffusion-weighted MR imaging: reproducibility comparison of ADC measurements obtained with multiple breath-hold, free-breathing, respiratory-triggered, and navigator-triggered techniques. Radiology 2014; 271: 113125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Thng CH, Koh TS, Collins DJ, et al. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. World J Gastroenterol 2010; 16: 15981609.

  • 23. Hagiwara M, Rusinek H, Lee VS, et al. Advanced liver fibrosis: diagnosis with 3D whole-liver perfusion MR imaging—initial experience. Radiology 2008; 246: 926934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Martin DR, Seibert D, Yang M, et al. Reversible heterogeneous arterial phase liver perfusion associated with transient acute hepatitis: findings on gadolinium-enhanced MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging 2004; 20: 838842.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Leggett DA, Kelley BB, Bunce IH, et al. Colorectal cancer: diagnostic potential of CT measurements of hepatic perfusion and implications for contrast enhancement protocols. Radiology 1997; 205: 716720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Tsushima Y, Blomley MJ, Yokoyama H, et al. Does the presence of distant and local malignancy alter parenchymal perfusion in apparently disease-free areas of the liver? Dig Dis Sci 2001; 46: 21132119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Scharf J, Zapletal C, Hess T, et al. Assessment of hepatic perfusion in pigs by pharmacokinetic analysis of dynamic MR images. J Magn Reson Imaging 1999; 9: 568572.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Van Beers BE, Materne R, Annet L, et al. Capillarization of the sinusoids in liver fibrosis: noninvasive assessment with contrast-enhanced MRI in the rabbit. Magn Reson Med 2003; 49: 692699.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Yang ZH, Ye XH, Tan Y, et al. Evaluation of cirrhotic liver with perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: a preliminary experimental study in animal models with half-liver cirrhosis. Chin Med Sci J 2006; 21: 252257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Risse F, Boese JM, Hess T, et al. An experimental organ model for magnetic resonance imaging. Z Med Phys 2007; 17: 205211.

  • 31. Jaschke W, Lipton MJ, Boyd D, et al. Dynamic CT scanning of the normal canine liver: interpretation of time density curves resulting from an intravenous bolus injection of contrast material. Eur J Radiol 1985; 5: 256260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Lee W, Chung JW, Kim HB, et al. Acute hepatic vein occlusion: spiral CT findings in an experimental study. Abdom Imaging 2002; 27: 527535.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Zwingenberger AL, Shofer FS. Dynamic computed tomographic quantitation of hepatic perfusion in dogs with and without portal vascular anomalies. Am J Vet Res 2007; 68: 970974.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Zwingenberger AL, Daniel L, Steffey MA, et al. Correlation between liver volume, portal vascular anatomy, and hepatic perfusion in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt before and after placement of ameroid constrictors. Vet Surg 2014; 43: 926934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Frink EJ Jr, Morgan SE, Coetzee A, et al. The effects of sevoflurane, halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on hepatic blood flow and oxygenation in chronically instrumented greyhound dogs. Anesthesiology 1992; 76: 8590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Perfusion- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the liver of healthy dogs

View More View Less
  • 1 Clinic of Diagnostic Imaging, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland.
  • | 2 Section of Anaesthesiology, Equine Department, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland.
  • | 3 Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland.
  • | 4 Clinic of Diagnostic Imaging, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the perfusion and diffusion characteristics of the liver in healthy dogs as determined by morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI.

ANIMALS 11 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES Each dog was anesthetized and underwent morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI of the cranial aspect of the abdomen. On the MRI images, a region of interest (ROI) was established for each of 6 structures (aorta, caudal vena cava, portal vein, hepatic parenchyma, splenic parenchyma, and skeletal [epaxial] muscle). The signal intensity was determined, and a time-intensity curve was generated for each ROI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated for the hepatic and splenic parenchyma in diffusion-weighted MRI images, and the normalized ADC for the liver was calculated as the ratio of the ADC for the hepatic parenchyma to the ADC for the splenic parenchyma. Dogs also underwent abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate samples and biopsy specimens were obtained from the liver for cytologic and histologic examination.

RESULTS Cytologic and histologic results suggested that the liver was clinically normal in all dogs. Perfusion-weighted MRI parameters varied among the 6 ROIs. The mean ± SD ADC of the hepatic parenchyma was 0.84 × 10−3 mm2/s ± 0.17 × 10−3 mm2/s, and the mean normalized ADC for the liver was 1.8 ± 0.4.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided preliminary baseline information about the diffusion and perfusion characteristics of the liver in healthy dogs. Additional studies on dogs of various breeds with and without hepatopathies are necessary to validate and refine these findings.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Del Chicca (fdelchicca@vetclinics.uzh.ch).