Physiologic and biochemical effects of electroacupuncture combined with intramuscular administration of dexmedetomidine to provide analgesia in goats

Zahir Shah Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

Search for other papers by Zahir Shah in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MS
,
Man L. Hu Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

Search for other papers by Man L. Hu in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MS
,
Zheng Y. Qiu Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

Search for other papers by Zheng Y. Qiu in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MS
,
Fei Y. Zhou Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

Search for other papers by Fei Y. Zhou in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BS
,
Jie Zeng Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

Search for other papers by Jie Zeng in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BS
,
Juan Wan Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

Search for other papers by Juan Wan in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BS
,
Shao W. Wang Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

Search for other papers by Shao W. Wang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BS
,
Wei Zhang Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

Search for other papers by Wei Zhang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BS
, and
Ming X. Ding Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

Search for other papers by Ming X. Ding in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate physiologic and biochemical effects of electroacupuncture and dexmedetomidine administration to goats.

ANIMALS 30 healthy adult goats.

PROCEDURES Goats were allotted to 5 groups (6 goats/group) and received electroacupuncture, dexmedetomidine (5 or 20 μg/kg, IM), electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg, IM), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM [control treatment]). Pain threshold, cardiorespiratory effects, rectal temperature, and hematologic and biochemical variables were assessed.

RESULTS Dexmedetomidine (20 μg/kg) increased pain threshold and decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature. Pain threshold of goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) was higher than that of goats receiving electroacupuncture or of goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg at 30 minutes, but did not differ from that of goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg. Compared with goats administered dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg, goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg had a higher heart rate from 30 to 60 minutes and a higher respiratory rate from 5 to 60 minutes. Electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) did not affect rectal temperature. Serum glucose concentrations of goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) were higher than for goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg at 30 minutes but not for goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg. Creatinine and BUN concentrations, alanine or aspartate aminotransferase activities, and hematologic variables of treated goats did not change.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Electroacupuncture in combination with a low dose of dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg, IM) administered to goats provided antinociception.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate physiologic and biochemical effects of electroacupuncture and dexmedetomidine administration to goats.

ANIMALS 30 healthy adult goats.

PROCEDURES Goats were allotted to 5 groups (6 goats/group) and received electroacupuncture, dexmedetomidine (5 or 20 μg/kg, IM), electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg, IM), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM [control treatment]). Pain threshold, cardiorespiratory effects, rectal temperature, and hematologic and biochemical variables were assessed.

RESULTS Dexmedetomidine (20 μg/kg) increased pain threshold and decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature. Pain threshold of goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) was higher than that of goats receiving electroacupuncture or of goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg at 30 minutes, but did not differ from that of goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg. Compared with goats administered dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg, goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg had a higher heart rate from 30 to 60 minutes and a higher respiratory rate from 5 to 60 minutes. Electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) did not affect rectal temperature. Serum glucose concentrations of goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) were higher than for goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg at 30 minutes but not for goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg. Creatinine and BUN concentrations, alanine or aspartate aminotransferase activities, and hematologic variables of treated goats did not change.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Electroacupuncture in combination with a low dose of dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg, IM) administered to goats provided antinociception.

  • 1. Kastner SBR, von Rechenberg B, Keller K, et al. Comparison of medetomidine and dexmedetomidine as premedication in isoflurane anesthesia for orthopaedic surgery in domestic sheep. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2001; 48: 231241.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Hunt JR, Grint NJ, Taylor PM, et al. Sedative and analgesic effects of buprenorphine, combined with either acepromazine or dexmedetomidine, for premedication prior to elective surgery in cats and dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2013; 40: 297307.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Kumar R, Kinjavdekar P, Amarpal, et al. Clinicophysiological, haematobiochemical and haemodynamic effect of propofol and ketamine with dexmedetomidine in urolithic goats. Vet World 2014; 7: 566573.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Unnerstall JR, Kopajtic TA, Kuhar MJ. Distribution of alpha 2 agonist binding sites in the rat and human central nervous system: analysis of some functional, anatomic correlates of the pharmacologic effects of clonidine and related adrenergic agents. Brain Res 1984; 319: 69101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Savola JM, Ruskoaho H, Puurunen J. Evidence for medetomidine as a selective and potent agonist at α2-adrenoreceptors. J Auton Pharmacol 1986; 6: 275284.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Lawrence CJ, Prinzen FW, de Lang S. Hemodynamic and coronary vascular effects of dexmedetomidine in the anesthetized goat. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41: 830836.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Kastner SBR, Boller J, Kutter APN, et al. Comparison of cardiopulmonary effects of dexmedetomidine administered as a constant rate infusion without loading dose in sheep and goats anaesthetised with sevoflurane. Small Rumin Res 2007; 71: 7582.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Eze CA, Nweke RI, Nwangwu NC. Comparison of physiologic and analgesic effects of xylazine/ketamine, xylazine/lignocaine, and lignocaine anaesthesia in West-African Dwarf Goat. Niger Vet J 2004; 25: 3947.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Rings DM, Muir WW. Cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular xylazine-ketamine in calves. Can J Comp Med 1982; 46: 386389.

  • 10. Afshar FS, Baniadam A, Marashipour SP. Effect of xylazine-ketamine on arterial blood pressure, arterial blood pH, blood gases, rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates in goats. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2005; 49: 481484.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Wang DW, Jin YH. Present status of cesarean section under acupuncture anesthesia in China. Fukushima J Med Sci 1989; 35: 4552.

  • 12. Chen CL. Acupuncture anesthesia. In: Yu C, ed. Traditional Chinese veterinary acupuncture and moxibustion. Beijing: Chinese Agriculture Press, 1984;332365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Parmen V. Electroacupuncture analgesia in a rabbit ovariohysterectomy. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2014; 7: 1524.

  • 14. Wang BG, Wang EZ, Chen XZ, et al. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint-stimulation potentiates the anesthetic effect of enflurane in humans. J Anesth 1995; 9: 4043.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Qu GL, Zhuang XL, Xu GH, et al. Clinical observation on combined anesthetics—acupuncture anesthesia in 50 patients undergoing renal transplantation [in Chinese]. Chin J Pain Med 1996; 2: 7277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Dong QL, Wang GN. Effect of general anesthesia with combination of acupuncture and enflurane applied in radical operation of laryngocarcinoma. Chin J Integr Med 2006; 12: 306309.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Qin BG, Lin YT, Cheng XX, et al. Electroacupuncture combined with low dose epidural anesthesia for subtotal gastrectomy. Chin J Pain Med 1996; 2: 135143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Tang NM, Dong HW, Wang XM, et al. Cholecystokinin antisense RNA increases the analgesic effect induced by electroacupuncture or low dose morphine: conversion of low responder rats into high responders. Pain 1997; 71: 7180.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Liu DM, Zhou ZY, Ding Y, et al. Physiologic effects of electroacupuncture combined with intramuscular administration of xylazine to provide analgesia in goats. Am J Vet Res 2009; 70: 13261332.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Xu SF, Cao XD, Mo WY, et al. Effect of combination of drugs with acupuncture on analgesic efficacy. Acupunct Electrother Res 1989; 14: 103113.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Xu W, Yan YS, Chen ZQ. Effect of ketamine on acupuncture analgesia [in Chinese]. Acupunct Res 1989; 14: 428430.

  • 22. Klide AM, Kung SH. Animal acupuncture points. In: Klide AM, Kung SH, eds. Veterinary acupuncture. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982; 67201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Cheng LL, Ding MX, Xiong C, et al. Effects of electroacupuncture of different frequencies on the release profile of endogenous opioid peptides in the central nerve system of goats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012; 2012: 476457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Kinjavdekar P, Singh Amarpal GR, Aithal HP, et al. Physiologic and biochemical effects of subarachnoidally administered xylazine and medetomidine in goats. Small Rumin Res 2000; 38: 217228.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. DeRossi R, Gaspar EB, Junqueira AL, et al. A comparison of two subarachnoid α2-agonists, xylazine and clonidine, with respect to duration of antinociception, and hemodynamic effects in goats. Small Rumin Res 2003; 47: 103111.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Shah Z, Kalhore AB, Kachiwal AB, et al. Comparative studies on sedative and analgesic effects of xylazine and detomidine in goats. J Anim Plant Sci 2013; 23: 3942.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Ludbrook G, Grant C, Upton R, et al. A method for frequent measurement of sedation and analgesia in sheep using the response to a ramped electrical stimulus. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 1995; 33: 1722.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Grant C, Upton RN. The anti-nociceptive efficacy of low dose intramuscular xylazine in lambs. Res Vet Sci 2001; 70: 4750.

  • 29. Humphries SA, Long NR, Johnson MH. Iontophoretically applied potassium ions as an experimental pain stimulus for investigating pain mechanisms. Percept Psychophys 1994; 56: 637648.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Research Group of Acupuncture Anesthesia of Peking Medical College. The effect of acupuncture on the human skin pain threshold. Chin Med J (Engl) 1973; 3: 151157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Ulett GA, Han S, Han JS. Electroacupuncture: mechanisms and clinical application. Biol Psychiatry 1998; 44: 129138.

  • 32. Peng H, Sun Y, Zhou W, et al. Effects of electroacupuncture on the pain threshold and the concentration of acetylcholine and the activity of acetylcholinesterase in the cerebrospinal fluid in cattle. J Huazhong Agric Univ 1982; 1: 6163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Han JS. Acupuncture anesthesia versus acupuncture-assisted anesthesia. In: Han JS, ed. The neurochemical basis of pain relief by acupuncture. Beijing: Peking University Medical Press, 2008;67.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Gades NM, Danneman PJ, Wixson SK, et al. The magnitude and duration of the analgesic effect of morphine, butorphanol, and buprenorphine in rats and mice. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 2000; 39: 813.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Han JS. Acupuncture: neuropeptide release produced by electrical stimulation of different frequencies. Trends Neurosci 2003; 26: 1722.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Han JS, Tang J, Ren MF, et al. Central neurotransmitters and acupuncture analgesia. Am J Chin Med 1980; 8: 331348.

  • 37. Stenberg D. Physiological role of alpha 2-adrenoreceptors in the regulation of vigilance and pain. Acta Vet Scand Suppl 1989; 85: 2128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Yaksh TL. Pharmacology of spinal adrenergic systems which modulate spinal nociceptive processing. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1985; 22: 845858.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Shankar N, Varshney A, Bhattacharya A, et al. Electroacupuncture, morphine and clonidine: a comparative study of analgesic effects. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1996; 40: 225230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Herradon G, Ezquerra L, Nguyen T, et al. Noradrenergic and opioidergic alterations in neuropathy in different rat strains. Neurosci Lett 2008; 438: 186189.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Kabalak A, Ekmekcioglu E, Ceylan A, et al. The synergistic antinociceptive interactions of morphine and dexmedetomidine in rats with nerve-ligation injury. Hippokratia 2013; 17: 326331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Kutter AP, Kastner SB, Bettschart-Wolfensberger R, et al. Cardiopulmonary effects of dexmedetomidine in goats and sheep anaesthetised with sevoflurane. Vet Rec 2006; 159: 624629.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. Hu J, Xie JM, Gao XQ, et al. Effects of acupuncture on intracellular free calcium and magnesium concentrations in cardiac myocytes of hemorrhagic hypotension rabbits [in Chinese]. Acupunct Res 1999; 4: 3842.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. Hsu CC, Weng CS, Sun MF, et al. Evaluation of scalp and auricular acupuncture on EEG, HRV and PRV. Am J Chin Med 2007; 35: 219230.

  • 45. Hammond RA, England GCW. The effect of medetomidine premedication upon propofol induction and infusion anesthesia in the dog. Vet Anaesth Analg 1994; 21: 2428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. Shah Z, Ding MX, Hu ML. A review on the current use of alpha2 agonists in small ruminants. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 2014; 20: 633639.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47. Khattri S, Kinjavdekar P, Amarpal, et al. Dexmedetomidine with butorphanol and propofol for total intravenous anesthesia in uraemic buffalo calves. Adv Anim Vet Sci 2013; 1: 1523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48. Ponder SW, Clarke WG. Prolonged depression of thermoregulation after xylazine administration to cats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1980; 3: 203207.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49. MacDonald E, Scheinin H, Schienin M. Behavioural and neurological effects of medetomidine, a novel veterinary sedative. Eur J Pharmacol 1988; 158: 119127.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50. Ahmad RA, Amarpal, Kinjavdekar HP, et al. Effects of midazolam or midazolam-fentanyl on sedation and analgesia produced by intramuscular dexmedetomidine in dogs. Asia J Anim Sci 2011; 5: 302316.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51. Hau DM. Effects of electroacupuncture on leukocytes and plasma protein in the X-irradiated rats. Am J Chin Med 1984; 12: 106114.

  • 52. Mao HJ, Wu HH, Bu LL, et al. Relationship between electroacupuncture-induced regulatory effect on leukocytes and the caliber of splenic sinusoid basal lamina eyehole on rabbits [in Chinese]. Acupunct Res 2008; 33: 291295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53. Luo YH, Zhong GW, Zhao SP, et al. Efficacy observation of electroacupuncture intervention on severe acute pancreatitis at early stage complicated with intestinal paralysis. Chin Acupunct Moxibustion 2011; 31: 105109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54. Liao YY, Seto K, Saito H, et al. Effects of acupuncture on adrenocortical hormone production. (II) Effect of acupuncture on the response of adrenocortical hormone production to stress. Am J Chin Med 1980; 8: 160166.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55. Han SHI, Yoon SH, Cho YW, et al. Inhibitory effects of electroacupuncture on stress responses evoked by tooth-pulp stimulation in rats. Physiol Behav 1999; 66: 217222.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56. Brockman RP. Effect of xylazine on plasma glucose, glucagon and insulin concentration in sheep. Res Vet Sci 1981; 30: 383384.

  • 57. Singh GD, Kinjavdekar P, Amarpal, et al. Clinicophysiological and haemodynamic effects of fentanyl with xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in isoflurane-anesthetised in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). J S Afr Vet Assoc 2013; 84: 111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58. Gasthuys F, Terpstra P, van de Hende C, et al. Hyperglycemia and diuresis during sedation with detomidine in the horse. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 1987; 34: 641648.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement