Assessment of the expression of biomarkers of uremic inflammation in dogs with renal disease

Alice Nentwig Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Division of Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

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Ariane Schweighauser Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Division of Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

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Carla Maissen-Villiger Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Division of Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

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Rupert M. Bruckmaier Division of Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

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Andreas Zurbriggen Division of Neurological Sciences, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

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H. Anette van Dorland Division of Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

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Thierry Francey Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Division of Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the expression of inflammatory cytokines and enzymes in venous whole blood of dogs with impaired renal function attributable to various causes.

ANIMALS 46 dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI), 8 dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and 10 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs with AKI and CKD were prospectively enrolled during 2010 if they met inclusion criteria. Demographic and laboratory characteristics were evaluated for each dog, and expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-10, and transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) and enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS] and 5-lipoxygenase [5-LO]) was measured in venous whole blood obtained at initial evaluation.

RESULTS Dogs with impaired renal function had markedly higher expression of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and TGF-β and the enzyme 5-LO, compared with expression in healthy dogs. Additionally, 17 of 46 AKI dogs (but none of the CKD dogs) had higher IL-8 mRNA expression and 3 of 8 CKD dogs (but only 2/46 AKI dogs) had higher TNF-α expression, compared with results for healthy dogs. No significant difference between renal disease groups was detected for inflammatory markers and laboratory variables, degree of azotemia, or cause of impaired renal function.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, expression of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and TGF-β and the enzyme 5-LO was clearly increased in dogs with renal disease, which suggested that these markers were part of an inflammatory response in animals with AKI or CKD. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:218–224)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the expression of inflammatory cytokines and enzymes in venous whole blood of dogs with impaired renal function attributable to various causes.

ANIMALS 46 dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI), 8 dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and 10 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs with AKI and CKD were prospectively enrolled during 2010 if they met inclusion criteria. Demographic and laboratory characteristics were evaluated for each dog, and expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-10, and transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) and enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS] and 5-lipoxygenase [5-LO]) was measured in venous whole blood obtained at initial evaluation.

RESULTS Dogs with impaired renal function had markedly higher expression of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and TGF-β and the enzyme 5-LO, compared with expression in healthy dogs. Additionally, 17 of 46 AKI dogs (but none of the CKD dogs) had higher IL-8 mRNA expression and 3 of 8 CKD dogs (but only 2/46 AKI dogs) had higher TNF-α expression, compared with results for healthy dogs. No significant difference between renal disease groups was detected for inflammatory markers and laboratory variables, degree of azotemia, or cause of impaired renal function.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, expression of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and TGF-β and the enzyme 5-LO was clearly increased in dogs with renal disease, which suggested that these markers were part of an inflammatory response in animals with AKI or CKD. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:218–224)

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