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Effects of various antiplatelet drugs on ex vivo platelet activation induced by equine herpesvirus type 1

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  • 1 Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850.
  • | 2 Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850.
  • | 3 Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850.
  • | 6 Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of treatment of horses with standard platelet inhibitors on ex vivo inhibition of platelet activation by equine herpesvirus type I (EHV-I).

ANIMALS II healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study, horses were treated orally for 5 days with theophylline (5 mg/kg, q 12 h), pentoxifylline (10 mg/kg, q 12 h), clopidogrel bisulfate (4 mg/kg, q 24 h), acetylsalicylic acid (20 mg/kg, q 24 h), or placebo. Horses received all treatments, each separated by a 3-week washout period. Platelet-rich plasma was prepared from citrated blood samples obtained before each treatment session and 4 hours after each final drug dose. Platelets were exposed to 2 EHV-I strains (at I plaque forming units/cell) or positive (thrombin-convulxin) and negative control substances for 10 minutes, then platelet activation was assessed by determining the percentages of P-selectin–positive platelets and platelet-derived microparticles (PDMPs; small events positive for annexin V) with flow cytometry. Platelet aggregation in response to 10μM ADP was also assessed.

RESULTS No significant differences in median percentages of P-selectin–positive platelets and PDMPs in EHV-I-exposed platelets were identified between measurement points (before and after treatment) for all drugs, nor were differences identified among drugs at each measurement point. Only clopidogrel significantly inhibited platelet aggregation in response to ADP in platelet-rich plasma samples obtained after that treatment session.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Treatment of horses with standard platelet inhibitors had no effect on EHV-I-induced platelet α-granule exteriorization or microvesiculation and release of PDMPs ex vivo, suggesting these drugs will not prevent platelet activation induced directly by EHV-I in vivo.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Yeo's present address is SUTL EnvironTech Pte Ltd, SUTL House, 100J Pasir Panjang Rd No. 05-00, Singapore, 118525.

Address correspondence to Dr. Stokol (ts23@cornell.edu).