• 1. Amsel S, Kainer R, Johnson L. Choosing the best site to perform venipuncture in a llama. Vet Med 1987;82: 535536.

  • 2. DuBois WR, Prado TM, Ko JC, et al. A comparison of two intramuscular doses of xylazine-ketamine combination and tolazoline reversal in llamas. Vet Anaesth Analg 2004;31: 9096.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Seddighi R, Elliot SB, Whitlock BK, et al. Physiologic and antinociceptive effects following intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in combination with tiletamine-zolazepam in llamas. Am J Vet Res 2013;74: 530534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Gertler R, Brown HC, Mitchell DH, et al. Dexmedetomidine: a novel sedative-analgesic agent. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2001;14: 1321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Sinclair MD. A review of the physiological effects of α2-agonists related to the clinical use of medetomidine in small animal practice. Can Vet J 2003;44: 885897.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Maze M, Tranquilli W. Alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists: defining the role in clinical anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1991;74: 581605.

  • 7. Segal IS, Vickery RG, Maze M. Dexmedetomidine decreases halothane anesthetic requirements in rats. Acta Vet Scand Suppl 1989;85: 5559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Badner N, Trepanier C, Chen R, et al. Perioperative use of dexmedetomidine improves patient analgesia and provides sedation without increasing side effects. Anesth Analg 1999;88: 314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Geddes LA. Method and simple apparatus for teaching the auscultatory method for measuring human blood pressure to large classes. Physiologist 1980;23: 3132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Prado TM, Doherty TJ, Boggan EB, et al. Effects of acepromazine and butorphanol on tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in llamas. Am J Vet Res 2008;69: 182188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Lin HC, Tyler JW, Wallace SS, et al. Telazol and xylazine anesthesia in sheep. Cornell Vet 1993;83: 117124.

  • 12. Wilson RP, Zagon IS, Larach DR, et al. Antinociceptive properties of tiletamine-zolazepam improved by addition of xylazine or butorphanol. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1992;43: 11291133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Sweitzer RA, Ghneim GS, Gardner IA, et al. Immobilization and physiological parameters associated with chemical restraint of wild pigs with Telazol(R) and xylazine hydrochloride. J Wildl Dis 1997;33: 198205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Philipp M, Brede M, Hein L. Physiological significance of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor subtype diversity: one receptor is not enough. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2002; 283:R287R295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Celly CS, McDonell WN, Young SS, et al. The comparative hypoxaemic effect of four alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonists (xylazine, romifidine, detomidine and medetomidine) in sheep. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1997;20: 464471.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Haskins SC. Monitoring anesthetized patients. In: Tranquilli WJ, Thurman JC, Grimm KA, eds. Lumb & Jones’ veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. 4th ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 2007; 533558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Banchero N, Grover RF. Effect of different levels of simulated altitude on O2 transport in llama and sheep. Am J Physiol 1972;222: 12391245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Banchero N, Grover RF, Will JA. Oxygen transport in the llama (Lama glama). Respir Physiol 1971;13: 102115.

  • 19. Reynafarje C, Faura J, Villavicencio D, et al. Oxygen transport of hemoglobin in high-altitude animals (Camelidae). J Appl Physiol 1975;38: 806810.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Story JF. Hemoglobin function and physiological adaptation to hypoxia in high-altitude mammals. J Mammal 2007;88: 2431.

Advertisement

Effect of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride on tiletamine hydrochloride–zolazepam hydrochloride anesthesia in alpacas

Reza Seddighi DVM, PhD1, Agricola Odoi BVM, PhD2, and Thomas J. Doherty MVB, MSC3
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
  • | 2 Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
  • | 3 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of IM administration of a tiletamine hydrochloride–zolazepam hydrochloride (TZ) combination with either dexmedetomidine hydrochloride or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS) on the motor response to claw clamping, selected cardiorespiratory variables, and quality of recovery from anesthesia in alpacas.

ANIMALS 5 adult sexually intact male alpacas.

PROCEDURES Each alpaca was given the TZ combination (2 mg/kg) with dexmedetomidine (5 [D5], 10 [D10], 15 [D15], or 20 [D20] µg/kg) or SS IM at 1-week intervals (5 experiments); motor response to claw clamping was assessed, and characteristics of anesthesia, recovery from anesthesia, and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded.

RESULTS Mean ± SEM duration of lack of motor response to claw clamping was longest when alpacas received treatments D15 (30.9 ± 5.9 minutes) and D20 (40.8 ± 5.9 minutes). Duration of lateral recumbency was significantly longer with dexmedetomidine administration. The longest time (81.3 ± 10.4 minutes) to standing was observed when alpacas received treatment D20. Following treatment SS, 4 alpacas moved in response to claw clamping at the 5-minute time point. Heart rate decreased from pretreatment values in all alpacas when dexmedetomidine was administered. Treatments D10, D15, and D20 decreased Pao2, compared with treatment SS, during the first 15 minutes. During recovery, muscle stiffness and multiple efforts to regain a sternal position were observed in 3 SS-treated and 1 D5-treated alpacas; all other recoveries were graded as excellent.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In TZ-anesthetized alpacas, dexmedetomidine (10, 15, and 20 µg/kg) administered IM increased the duration of lack of motor response to claw clamping, compared with the effect of SS.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Seddighi (mrsed@utk.edu).