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Effects of various cardiovascular drugs on indices obtained with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography of the left atrium and time–left atrial area curve analysis in healthy dogs

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  • 1 Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.
  • | 2 Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.
  • | 3 Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.
  • | 4 Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.
  • | 5 Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.
  • | 6 Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.
  • | 7 Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.
  • | 8 Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of dobutamine, esmolol, milrinone, and phenylephrine on left atrial phasic function of healthy dogs.

ANIMALS 9 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES Following sedation with propofol on each of 4 experimental days, dogs were administered a constant rate infusion of dobutamine (5 μg/kg/min), esmolol (500 μg/kg/min), milrinone (25 μg/kg, IV bolus, followed by 0.5 μg/kg/min), or phenylephrine (2 μg/kg/min). There was at least a 14-day interval between experimental days. Each drug was administered to 6 dogs. Conventional and 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography were performed before (baseline) and after administration of the cardiovascular drug, and time–left atrial area curves were derived to calculate indices for left atrial reservoir, conduit, and booster pump functions (left atrial phasic function) and left ventricular contractility and lusitropy.

RESULTS Compared with baseline values, indices for left atrial reservoir and booster pump functions and left ventricular contractility and lusitropy were significantly increased following dobutamine administration; indices for left atrial phasic function and left ventricular lusitropy were changed insignificantly, and indices for left ventricular contractility were significantly impaired following esmolol administration; indices for left atrial phasic function and left ventricular relaxation were changed insignificantly, and indices for left ventricular systolic function were significantly augmented following milrinone administration; and indices for left atrial phasic function and left ventricular lusitropy were changed insignificantly, and indices of ventricular contractility were significantly impaired following phenylephrine administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, following administration of dobutamine, esmolol, milrinone, or phenylephrine to healthy dogs, left atrial phasic function indices were fairly stable and did not parallel changes in left ventricular function indices.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of dobutamine, esmolol, milrinone, and phenylephrine on left atrial phasic function of healthy dogs.

ANIMALS 9 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES Following sedation with propofol on each of 4 experimental days, dogs were administered a constant rate infusion of dobutamine (5 μg/kg/min), esmolol (500 μg/kg/min), milrinone (25 μg/kg, IV bolus, followed by 0.5 μg/kg/min), or phenylephrine (2 μg/kg/min). There was at least a 14-day interval between experimental days. Each drug was administered to 6 dogs. Conventional and 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography were performed before (baseline) and after administration of the cardiovascular drug, and time–left atrial area curves were derived to calculate indices for left atrial reservoir, conduit, and booster pump functions (left atrial phasic function) and left ventricular contractility and lusitropy.

RESULTS Compared with baseline values, indices for left atrial reservoir and booster pump functions and left ventricular contractility and lusitropy were significantly increased following dobutamine administration; indices for left atrial phasic function and left ventricular lusitropy were changed insignificantly, and indices for left ventricular contractility were significantly impaired following esmolol administration; indices for left atrial phasic function and left ventricular relaxation were changed insignificantly, and indices for left ventricular systolic function were significantly augmented following milrinone administration; and indices for left atrial phasic function and left ventricular lusitropy were changed insignificantly, and indices of ventricular contractility were significantly impaired following phenylephrine administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, following administration of dobutamine, esmolol, milrinone, or phenylephrine to healthy dogs, left atrial phasic function indices were fairly stable and did not parallel changes in left ventricular function indices.

Contributor Notes

The first 2 authors contributed equally to this study.

Address correspondence to Dr. Takiguchi (mtaki@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp).