• 1. Carpenter JW, Novill MN, Kaiser HL. Neoplasia and other disease problems in black-footed ferrets; implications for an endangered species. In: Kraiser HE, ed. Neoplasms—comparative pathology of growth in animals, plants, and man. Baltimore, Md: The Williams & Wilkins Co, 1981; 739746.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Li X, Fox JG, Padrid PA. Neoplastic diseases in ferrets: 574 cases (1968–1997). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212: 14021406.

  • 3. Antinoff N, Hahn K. Ferret oncology: diseases, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2004; 7: 579625.

  • 4. Hess L. Ferret lymphoma: the old and the new. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 2005; 14: 199204.

  • 5. Hahn KA. Chemotherapy dose calculation and administration in exotic animal species. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 2005; 14: 193198.

  • 6. Chun R, Garrett LD, Vail DM. Cancer chemotherapy. In: Withrow WJ, Vail DM, eds. Withrow & MacEwen's small animal clinical oncology. 4th ed. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2007; 163192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Meeh K. Oberflächenmessungen des menschlichen Körpers und seine einzelnen Teile in den verschiedenen Altersstufen. Z Biol 1879; 15: 425458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Freireich EJ, Gehan EA, Rall DP, et al. Quantitative comparison of toxicity of anticancer agents in mouse, rat, hamster, dog, monkey, and man. Cancer Chemother Rep 1966; 50: 219244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Du Bois D, Du Bois EF. Clinical calorimetry (10th paper): a formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. Arch Intern Med 1916; 17: 863871.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Price GS, Frazier DL. Use of body surface area (BSA)-based dosages to calculate chemotherapeutic drug dose in dogs: I. Potential problems with current BSA formulae. J Vet Intern Med 1998; 12: 267271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Ruggieri G, Rocca AR. Analysis of past and present methods of measuring and estimating body surface area and the resulting evaluation of its doubtful suitability to universal application. Blood Purif 2010; 30: 296305.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Schloesser RL, Lauff M, Buxmann H, et al. Three-dimensional body scanning: a new method to estimate body surface area in neonates. Neonatology 2011; 100: 260264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Geraghty EM, Boone JM. Determination of height, weight, body mass index, and body surface area with a single abdominal CT image. Radiology 2003; 228: 857863.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Zehnder AM, Hawkins MG, Trestrail EA, et al. Calculation of body surface area via computed tomography–guided modeling in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Am J Vet Res 2012; 73: 18591863.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Norman GR, Streiner DL. Putting it all together. In: Biostatistics: the bare essentials. 3rd ed. Shelton, Conn: People's Medical Publishing House, 2008; 317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Rosner B. Multisample inference. In: Fundamentals of biostatistics. 7th ed. Boston: Brooks Cole, 2011; 568.

  • 17. Sreekumar KP, Nirmalan G. Estimation of the total surface area in Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus). Vet Res Commun 1990; 14: 517.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Liu CT, Higbee GA. Determination of body surface area in the rhesus monkey. J Appl Physiol 1976; 40: 101104.

  • 19. Gehan EA, George SL. Estimation of human body surface area from height and weight. Cancer Chemother Rep 1970; 54: 225235.

  • 20. Hill RC, Scott KC. Energy requirements and body surface area of cats and dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 225: 689694.

  • 21. Powers LV, Brown SA. Basic anatomy, physiology, and husbandry. In: Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW, eds. Ferrets, rabbits, and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery. 3rd ed. St Louis: Elsevier, 2012; 112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Sawyer M, Ratain MJ. Body surface area as a determinant of pharmacokinetics and drug dosing. Invest New Drugs 2001; 19: 171177.

  • 23. Frazier DL, Price GS. Use of body surface area (BSA)-based dosages to calculate chemotherapeutic drug dose in dogs: II. Limitations imposed by pharmacokinetic factors. J Vet Intern Med 1998; 12: 272278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of a ferret-specific formula for determining body surface area to improve chemotherapeutic dosing

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 6 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 7 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 8 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To use CT-derived measurements to create a ferret-specific formula for body surface area (BSA) to improve chemotherapeutic dosing.

ANIMALS 25 adult ferrets (19 live and 6 cadavers).

PROCEDURES Live subjects were weighed, and body measurements were obtained by each of 3 observers while ferrets were awake and anesthetized. Computed tomography was performed, and a 3-D surface model was constructed with open-source imaging software, from which BSA was estimated. The CT-derived values were compared with BSA calculated on the basis of the traditional tape method for 6 cadavers. To further validate CT analysis software, 11 geometric shapes were scanned and their CT-derived values compared with those calculated directly via geometric formulas. Agreement between methods of surface area estimation was assessed with linear regression. Ferret-specific formulas for BSA were determined with nonlinear regression models.

RESULTS Repeatability among the 3 observers was good for all measurements, but some measurements differed significantly between awake and anesthetized ferrets. Excellent agreement was found between measured versus CT-derived surface area of shapes, traditional tape– versus CT-derived BSA of ferret cadavers, and CT-derived BSA of cadavers with and without monitoring equipment. All surface area formulas performed relatively similarly.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT-derived BSA measurements of ferrets obtained via open-source imaging software were reliable. On the basis of study results, the recommended formula for BSA in ferrets would be 9.94 × (body weight)2/3; however, this represented a relatively minor difference from the feline-derived formula currently used by most practitioners and would result in little practical change in drug doses.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Jones’ present address is School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.

Dr. Cutler's present address is Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

Ms. Shapiro's present address is Covance Laboratories, 124 Owen Rd, Monona, WI 53716.

Address correspondence to Dr. Jones (kljones@ucdavis.edu).