• 1. Brooks DE. Inflammatory stromal keratopathies: medical management of stromal keratomalacia, stromal abscesses, eosinophilic keratitis, and band keratopathy in the horse. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2004;20:345360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Brooks DE, Ollivier FJ. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in corneal ulceration. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2004;34:611622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Ollivier FJ. Medical and surgical management of melting corneal ulcers exhibiting hyperproteinase activity in the horse. Clin Tech Equine Pract 2005;4:5071.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Slatter DH, Severin GA. Collagenase inhibitors in veterinary ophthalmology. Aust Vet Pract 1975;5:174176, 179.

  • 5. Wang L, Pan Q, Xue Q, et al. Evaluation of matrix metalloproteinase concentrations in the precorneal tear film from dogs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa–associated keratitis. Am J Vet Res 2008;69:13411345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Berman MB. Collagenase inhibitors: rationale for their use in treating corneal ulceration. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1975;15:4966.

  • 7. Berman MB, Barber JC, Talamo RC, et al. Corneal ulceration and the serum antiproteases I. a1 antitrypsin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1973;15:759770.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Ollivier FJ, Brooks DE, Kallberg ME, et al. Evaluation of various compounds to inhibit activity of matrix metalloproteinases in the tear film of horses with ulcerative keratitis. Am J Vet Res 2003;64:10811087.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Ollivier FJ, Brooks DE, Van Setten GB, et al. Profiles of matrix metalloproteinase activity in equine tear fluid during corneal healing in 10 horses with ulcerative keratitis. Vet Ophthalmol 2004;7:397405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. McDonald JK. An overview of protease specificity and catalytic mechanisms: aspects related to nomenclature and classification. Histochem J 1985;17:773785.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Barrett AJ, Rawlings ND, Salvesen G, et al. Introduction. In: Rawlings D, Salvesen G, eds. Handbook of proteolytic enzymes. 3rd ed. London: Elsevier, 2013;318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Haffner JC, Fecteau KA, Eiler E. Inhibition of collagenase breakdown of equine corneas by tetanus antitoxin, equine serum and acetylcysteine. Vet Ophthalmol 2003;6:6772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Berman M, Gordon J, Garcia LA, et al. Corneal ulceration and the serum antiproteases. II: complexes of corneal collagenases and alpha-macroglobulins. Exp Eye Res 1975;20:231244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Berman MB, Kerza-Kwiatecki AP, Davison PF. Characterization of human corneal collagenase. Exp Eye Res 1973;15:367373.

  • 15. Barrett AJ, Starkey PM. The interaction of alpha 2-macroglobulin with proteinases. Characteristics and specificity of the reaction, and a hypothesis concerning its molecular mechanism. Biochem J 1973;133:709724.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Borth W. Alpha 2-macroglobulin, a multifunctional binding protein with targeting characteristics. FASEB J 1992;6:33453353.

  • 17. Meyer C, Hinrichs W, Hahn U. Human α2 macroglobulin—another variation on the venus flytrap. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2012;51:50455047.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Matrisian LM. Matrix metalloproteinases. Curr Biol 2000;10:R692.

  • 19. Fridman R. Matrix metalloproteinases. Biochem Biophys Acta 2010;1803:12.

  • 20. Ledbetter EC, Gilger BC. Diseases and surgery of the canine cornea and sclera. In: Gelatt KN, Gilger BC, Kern TJ, eds. Veterinary ophthalmology. 5th ed. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013;9761050.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Nagase H, Itoh Y, Binner S. Interaction of alpha 2–macroglobulin with matrix metalloproteinases and its use for identification of their active forms. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994;732:294302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Herring IP. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, part 3: mydriatics/cycloplegics. Anesthetics, ophthalmic dyes, tear substitutes and stimulators, intraocular irrigating fluids, topical disinfectants, viscoelastics, fibrinolytics and antifibrinolytics, antifibrotic agents, tissue adhesives and anticollagenase agents. In: Gelatt KN, ed. Veterinary ophthalmology. 4th ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell, 2007;332354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Wooley DE, Roberts DR, Evanson JM. Small molecular weight beta 1 serum protein which specifically inhibits human collagenases. Nature 1976;261:325327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Liu L, Hartwig D, Harloff S. An optimised protocol for the production of autologous serum eyedrops. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2005;243:706714.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Tsubota K, Goto E, Fujita H, et al. Treatment of dry eye by autologous serum application in Sjögren's syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol 1999;83:390395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Geerling G, MacLennan S, Hartwig D. Autologous serum eye drops for ocular surface disorders. Br J Ophthalmol 2004;88:14671474.

  • 27. Kivirikko KI, Laitinen O, Prockop DJ. Modifications of a specific assay for hydroxyproline in urine. Anal Biochem 1967;19:249255.

  • 28. Montiani-Ferreira F, Petersen-Jones S, Cassotis N, et al. Early postnatal development of central corneal thickness in dogs. Vet Ophthalmol 2003;6:1922.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29 Lee RE, Davison PF. Collagen composition and turnover in ocular tissues of the rabbit. Exp Eye Res 1981;32:737745.

  • 30. Gilger BC, Whitley RD, McLaughlin SA, et al. Canine corneal thickness measured by ultrasonic pachymetry. Am J Vet Res 1991;52:15701572.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Moodie KL, Hashizume N, Houston DL, et al. Postnatal development of corneal curvature and thickness in the cat. Vet Ophthalmol 2001;4:267272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of species differences and the effects of storage duration and temperature on the anticollagenase efficacy of canine, feline, and equine serum on in vitro corneal degradation

Emily D. Conway BVMS, MS1, Jean Stiles DVM, MS2, Wendy M. Townsend DVM, MS3, and Hsin-Yi Weng BVM, MPH, PhD4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 4 Department of Comparative Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate species differences and effects of storage duration and temperature on the anticollagenase efficacy of canine, feline, and equine serum on in vitro corneal degradation.

SAMPLES Corneas and serum from dogs, cats, and horses.

PROCEDURES Clinically normal corneas from dogs, cats, and horses were harvested within 2 hours after euthanasia. Serum samples from dogs, cats, and horses were collected and pooled by species. Corneal specimens were incubated with collagenase derived from Clostridium histolyticum, 5mM calcium chloride in saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, and feline, canine, or equine serum that had been stored for 0, 30, 90, or 180 days at −20° or −80°C. Following incubation, the corneal weight loss percentage and hydroxyproline concentration in the incubation fluid were calculated and compared among experimental combinations.

RESULTS Feline serum was more effective than canine or equine serum for minimizing corneal weight loss. Incubation with feline or equine, but not canine, serum significantly reduced hydroxyproline production. Serum storage duration did not affect corneal weight loss, but the hydroxyproline concentration was greater for corneal specimens that were incubated with serum that was stored for 90 days, compared with that for corneal specimens incubated with serum that was stored for 0, 30, or 180 days. Serum storage temperature did not affect corneal weight loss or hydroxyproline concentration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that serum reduced corneal degradation in vitro, and the duration and temperature at which serum was stored did not affect its anticollagenase efficacy.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Stiles (stilesj@purdue.edu).