• 1. Olby NJ, De Risio L, Muñana KR, et al. Development of a functional scoring system in dogs with acute spinal cord injuries. Am J Vet Res 2001; 62: 16241628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Gordon-Evans WJ, Evans RB, Knap KE, et al. Characterization of spatiotemporal gait characteristics in clinically normal dogs and dogs with spinal cord disease. Am J Vet Res 2009; 70: 14441449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Basso DM. Behavioral testing after spinal cord injury: congruities, complexities, and controversies. J Neurotrauma 2004; 21: 395404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Giglio CA, Defino HLA, da-Silva CA, et al. Behavioral and physiological methods for early quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury and prognosis in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res 2006; 39: 16131623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Muir GD, Webb AA. Assessment of behavioral recovery following spinal cord injury in rats. Eur J Neurosci 2000; 12: 30793086.

  • 6. Gillette RL, Angle TC. Recent developments in canine locomotor analysis: a review. Vet J 2008; 178: 165176.

  • 7. Kirtley C. The temporal-spatial parameters. In: Kirtley C, eds. Clinical gait analysis. Edinburgh: Elsevier, 2006; 1537.

  • 8. McLaughlin RM. Kinetic and kinematic gait analysis in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2001; 31: 193201.

  • 9. Kim J, Kazmierzcak KA, Breur GJ. Comparison of temporospatial and kinetic variables of walking in small and large dogs on a pressure-sensing walkway. Am J Vet Res 2011; 72: 11711177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Lascelles BDX, Roe SC, Smith E, et al. Evaluation of a pressure walkway system for measurement of vertical limb forces in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 2006; 67: 277282.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Lascelles BDX, Findley K, Correa M, et al. Kinetic evaluation of normal walking and jumping in cats, using a pressure-sensitive walkway. Vet Rec 2007; 160: 512516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. da Costa RC. Cervical spondylomyelopathy (wobbler syndrome) in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2010; 40: 881913.

  • 13. Mason TA. Cervical vertebral instability (wobbler syndrome) in Doberman. Aust Vet J 1977; 53: 440445.

  • 14. Lewis D. Cervical spondylomyelopathy (“wobbler syndrome”) in dogs. In Pract 1992; 14: 125130.

  • 15. Seim HB, Withrow SJ. Pathophysiology and diagnosis of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy with emphasis on the Doberman Pinscher. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1982; 18: 241251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. VanGundy TE. Disc-associated wobbler syndrome in the Doberman Pinscher. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1988; 18: 667696.

  • 17. Trotter EJ, deLahunta A, Geary JC, et al. Caudal cervical vertebral malformation-malarticulation in Great Danes and Doberman Pinschers. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1976; 168: 917930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Sharp NJH, Cofone MT, Robertson ID, et al. Computed tomography in the evaluation of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy of the Doberman Pinscher. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1995; 36: 100108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. De Decker S, Saunders J, Duchateau P, et al. Radiographic vertebral canal and body ratios in Doberman pinschers with and without clinical signs of disk associated wobbler syndrome. J Vet Intern Med 2010; 24: 737.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Sharp NJH, Wheeler SJ, Cofone MT. Radiological evaluation of ‘wobbler’ syndrome—caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. J Small Anim Pract 1992; 33: 491499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Jeffery ND, McKee WM. Surgery for disc-associated wobbler syndrome in the dog—an examination of the controversy. J Small Anim Pract 2001; 42: 574581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. da Costa RC, Parent JM. One-year clinical and magnetic resonance imaging follow-up of Doberman Pinschers with cervical spondylomyelopathy treated medically or surgically. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 231: 243250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. da Costa RC, Parent JM, Partlow G, et al. Morphologic and morphometric magnetic resonance imaging features of Doberman Pinschers with and without clinical signs of cervical spondylomyelopathy. Am J Vet Res 2006; 67: 16011612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Besancon MF, Conzemius MG, Evans RB, et al. Distribution of vertical forces in the pads of Greyhounds and Labrador Retrievers during walking. Am J Vet Res 2004; 65: 14971501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Light VA, Steiss JE, Montgomery RD, et al. Temporal-spatial gait analysis by use of a portable walkway system in healthy Labrador Retrievers at a walk. Am J Vet Res 2010; 71: 9971002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Mölsä SH, Hielm-Björkman AK, Laitinen-Vapaavuori OM. Force platform analysis in clinically healthy Rottweilers: comparison with Labrador Retrievers. Vet Surg 2010; 39: 701707.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Foss K, da Costa RC, Moore S. Three-dimensional kinematic gait analysis of Doberman pinschers with and without cervical spondylomyelopathy. J Vet Intern Med 2013; 27: 112119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Millis DL. Assessing and measuring outcomes. In: Millis DL, Levine D, eds. Canine rehabilitation and physical therapy. St Louis: Saunders, 2004; 211227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. DeCamp CE. Kinetic and kinematic gait analysis and the assessment of lameness in the dog. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1997; 27: 825840.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Voss K, Wiestner T, Galeandro L, et al. Effect of dog breed and body conformation on vertical ground reaction forces, impulses and stance times. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2011; 24: 106112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Riggs CM, DeCamp CE, Soutas-Little RW, et al. Effects of subject velocity on force plate-measured ground reaction forces in healthy Greyhounds at the trot. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 15231526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. McLaughlin R Jr, Roush JK. Effects of increasing velocity on braking and propulsion times during force plate gait analysis in Greyhounds. Am J Vet Res 1995; 56: 159161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Roush JK, McLaughlin RM Jr. Effects of subject stance time and velocity on ground reaction forces in clinically normal Greyhounds at the walk. Am J Vet Res 1994; 55: 16721676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Renberg WC, Johnston SA, Ye K, et al. Comparison of stance time and velocity as control variables in force plate analysis of dogs. Am J Vet Res 1999; 60: 814819.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Foss K, da Costa RC, Rajala-Schultz PJ, et al. Force plate gait analysis in Doberman Pinschers with and without cervical spondylomyelopathy. J Vet Intern Med 2013; 27: 106111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Temporospatial and kinetic gait variables of Doberman Pinschers with and without cervical spondylomyelopathy

Carolina G. D. Lima DVM, MS1, Ronaldo C. da Costa DMV, MSc, PhD2, Kari D. Foss DVM, MS3, and Matthew J. Allen MA, VET MB, PhD4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 4 Surgical Discovery Centre, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, England.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare gait variables in Doberman Pinschers with and without cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM).

ANIMALS 18 Doberman Pinschers (9 clinically normal dogs and 9 CSM-affected dogs).

PROCEDURES A neurologic examination was performed on all dogs. The diagnosis of CSM was confirmed with MRI. Temporospatial and kinetic gait variables were measured by use of a pressure-sensitive walkway. Temporospatial variables evaluated included stance phase duration, swing phase duration, gait cycle duration, stride length, and gait velocity. Kinetic variables evaluated included peak vertical force and vertical impulse. Random-effects linear regression was used to determine the difference between CSM-affected and clinically normal dogs for each of the 7 variables.

RESULTS Values for temporospatial variables were significantly smaller in the thoracic limbs of CSM-affected dogs, compared with values for the thoracic limbs of clinically normal dogs. For the kinetic variables, peak vertical force was significantly higher in the thoracic limbs than the pelvic limbs for all dogs. Vertical impulse values were higher in the thoracic limbs than the pelvic limbs. There were significant differences in mean vertical impulse between the thoracic and pelvic limbs for both groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, significant differences in temporospatial variables were identified between the thoracic limbs of clinically normal and CSM-affected dogs, with the values being smaller for the CSM-affected dogs than for the clinically normal dogs. A pressure-sensitive walkway may provide a valid, practical option for rapid, objective assessment of gait and response to treatment in dogs with CSM.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare gait variables in Doberman Pinschers with and without cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM).

ANIMALS 18 Doberman Pinschers (9 clinically normal dogs and 9 CSM-affected dogs).

PROCEDURES A neurologic examination was performed on all dogs. The diagnosis of CSM was confirmed with MRI. Temporospatial and kinetic gait variables were measured by use of a pressure-sensitive walkway. Temporospatial variables evaluated included stance phase duration, swing phase duration, gait cycle duration, stride length, and gait velocity. Kinetic variables evaluated included peak vertical force and vertical impulse. Random-effects linear regression was used to determine the difference between CSM-affected and clinically normal dogs for each of the 7 variables.

RESULTS Values for temporospatial variables were significantly smaller in the thoracic limbs of CSM-affected dogs, compared with values for the thoracic limbs of clinically normal dogs. For the kinetic variables, peak vertical force was significantly higher in the thoracic limbs than the pelvic limbs for all dogs. Vertical impulse values were higher in the thoracic limbs than the pelvic limbs. There were significant differences in mean vertical impulse between the thoracic and pelvic limbs for both groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, significant differences in temporospatial variables were identified between the thoracic limbs of clinically normal and CSM-affected dogs, with the values being smaller for the CSM-affected dogs than for the clinically normal dogs. A pressure-sensitive walkway may provide a valid, practical option for rapid, objective assessment of gait and response to treatment in dogs with CSM.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Lima's present address is Veterinary Medical Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Address correspondence to Dr. da Costa (dacosta.6@osu.edu).