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Comparison of air sac volume, lung volume, and lung densities determined by use of computed tomography in conscious and anesthetized Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) positioned in ventral, dorsal, and right lateral recumbency

Benjamin N. NevittIllinois Zoological and Aquatic Animal Residency Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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Jennifer N. LanganDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.
Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield Zoo, 3300 Golf Rd, Brookfield, IL 60513.

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Michael J. AdkessonChicago Zoological Society, Brookfield Zoo, 3300 Golf Rd, Brookfield, IL 60513.

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Mark A. MitchellDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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Margaret HenzlerDepartment of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792.

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Randi DreesDepartment of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of recumbency on air sac volume, lung volume, and lung densities in CT images of healthy, conscious and anesthetized spontaneously breathing Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti).

Animals—25 adult (13 male and 12 female) Humboldt penguins.

Procedures—CT images of conscious penguins in ventral recumbency and anesthetized penguins in dorsal, ventral, and right lateral recumbency were obtained. Air sac volume, lung volume, and lung densities in CT images were calculated. A paired samples t test was used to determine whether right and left lung densities differed among recumbencies. Repeated-measures ANOVA (controlled for sex and order of recumbencies during CT) was used to determine whether air sac or lung volumes differed among recumbencies.

Results—Recumbency had a significant effect on air sac volume but not lung volume. Air sac volume was largest in conscious penguins in ventral recumbency (mean ± SD, 347.2 ± 103.1 cm3) and lowest in anesthetized penguins in dorsal recumbency (median, 202.0 cm3; 10th to 90th percentile, 129.2 to 280.3 cm3). Lung densities were highest in anesthetized penguins in dorsal recumbency (right lung median, 0.522 g/cm3; left lung median, 0.511 g/cm3) and lowest in anesthetized penguins in ventral recumbency (right lung median, 0.488 g/cm3; left lung median, 0.482 g/cm3).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that anesthetized Humboldt penguins had the lowest air sac volume and highest lung densities in dorsal recumbency. Therefore, this recumbency may not be recommended. Minimal changes in lung volume were detected among recumbencies or between conscious and anesthetized penguins.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of recumbency on air sac volume, lung volume, and lung densities in CT images of healthy, conscious and anesthetized spontaneously breathing Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti).

Animals—25 adult (13 male and 12 female) Humboldt penguins.

Procedures—CT images of conscious penguins in ventral recumbency and anesthetized penguins in dorsal, ventral, and right lateral recumbency were obtained. Air sac volume, lung volume, and lung densities in CT images were calculated. A paired samples t test was used to determine whether right and left lung densities differed among recumbencies. Repeated-measures ANOVA (controlled for sex and order of recumbencies during CT) was used to determine whether air sac or lung volumes differed among recumbencies.

Results—Recumbency had a significant effect on air sac volume but not lung volume. Air sac volume was largest in conscious penguins in ventral recumbency (mean ± SD, 347.2 ± 103.1 cm3) and lowest in anesthetized penguins in dorsal recumbency (median, 202.0 cm3; 10th to 90th percentile, 129.2 to 280.3 cm3). Lung densities were highest in anesthetized penguins in dorsal recumbency (right lung median, 0.522 g/cm3; left lung median, 0.511 g/cm3) and lowest in anesthetized penguins in ventral recumbency (right lung median, 0.488 g/cm3; left lung median, 0.482 g/cm3).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that anesthetized Humboldt penguins had the lowest air sac volume and highest lung densities in dorsal recumbency. Therefore, this recumbency may not be recommended. Minimal changes in lung volume were detected among recumbencies or between conscious and anesthetized penguins.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Drees's present address is Department of Clinical Sciences and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, England.

The study was performed at and supported by the Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, IL 60513.

Presented as an abstract at the 45th Annual American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference, Salt Lake City, October 2013.

Address correspondence to Dr. Nevitt (benjamin.nevitt@yahoo.com).