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Use of an inverse dynamics method to describe the motion of the canine pelvic limb in three dimensions

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  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996.
  • | 2 Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, College of Education, Health, and Human Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996.
  • | 3 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996.
  • | 4 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996.
  • | 5 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996.
  • | 6 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996.

Abstract

Objective—To use an inverse dynamics method to describe the motion of the canine pelvic limb in 3 dimensions.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—For each dog, 16 anatomic and tracking markers were used to define the center of rotation for the pelvic limb joints and a kinematic model was created to describe the motion of the pelvic limb. Kinetic, kinematic, and morphometric data were combined so that an inverse dynamics method could be used to define angular displacement, joint moment, and power of the hip, stifle, and tibiotarsal (hock) joints in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes.

Results—Movement and energy patterns were described for the hip, stifle, and hock joints in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of the 3-D movement of the pelvic limb can be used to better understand its motion, moment, and energy patterns in healthy dogs and provide a referent with which gaits of dogs with pelvic limb injuries before and after surgical repair or rehabilitation can be compared and characterized. This information can then be used to guide decisions regarding treatment options for dogs with pelvic limb injuries.

Abstract

Objective—To use an inverse dynamics method to describe the motion of the canine pelvic limb in 3 dimensions.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—For each dog, 16 anatomic and tracking markers were used to define the center of rotation for the pelvic limb joints and a kinematic model was created to describe the motion of the pelvic limb. Kinetic, kinematic, and morphometric data were combined so that an inverse dynamics method could be used to define angular displacement, joint moment, and power of the hip, stifle, and tibiotarsal (hock) joints in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes.

Results—Movement and energy patterns were described for the hip, stifle, and hock joints in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of the 3-D movement of the pelvic limb can be used to better understand its motion, moment, and energy patterns in healthy dogs and provide a referent with which gaits of dogs with pelvic limb injuries before and after surgical repair or rehabilitation can be compared and characterized. This information can then be used to guide decisions regarding treatment options for dogs with pelvic limb injuries.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Headrick's present address is VCA Arboretum View Animal Hospital, 2551 Warrenville Rd, Downers Grove, IL 60515.

Dr. Millard's present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Research was performed in the Veterinary Orthopedic Laboratory at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine.

This manuscript represents a portion of a thesis submitted by Dr. Headrick to the University of Tennessee Department of Comparative and Experimental Medicine as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Doctor of Philosophy degree.

Address correspondence to Dr. Headrick (jason.headrick@vcahospitals.com).