• 1. St-Pierre NR, Cobanov B, Schnitkey G. Economic losses from heat stress by US livestock industries. J Dairy Sci 2003; 86 (suppl 1): E52E77.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Mitlöhner FM, Morrow JL, Dailey JW, et al. Shade and water misting effects on behavior, physiology, performance, and carcass traits of heat-stressed feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci 2001; 79: 23272335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Fuquay JW. Heat stress as it affects animal production. J Anim Sci 1981; 52: 164174.

  • 4. Mader TL, Davis MS, Brown-Brandl T. Environmental factors influencing heat stress in feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci 2006; 84: 712719.

  • 5. Mader T, Griffin D, Hahn L. Managing feedlot heat stress. Lincoln, Neb: Cooperative Extension University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2000.

  • 6. Hahn GL, Gaughan JB, Mader TL, et al. Thermal indices and their applications for livestock environments. In: Livestock energetics and thermal environmental management. St Joseph, Mich: American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2009;113130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. Cattle and swine trucking guide for exporters. Washington, DC: USDA, 1999.

  • 8. Reid ED, Fried K, Velasco JM, et al. Correlation of rectal temperature and peripheral temperature from implantable radiofrequency microchips in Holstein steers challenged with lipopolysaccharide under thermoneutral and high ambient temperatures. J Anim Sci 2012; 90: 47884794.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Theurer ME, White BJ, Anderson DE, et al. Effect of transportation during periods of high ambient temperature on physiologic and behavioral indices of beef heifers. Am J Vet Res 2013; 74: 481490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Theurer ME, Anderson DE, White BJ, et al. Effect of Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia on behavior and physiologic responses of calves during high ambient environmental temperatures. J Anim Sci 2013; 91: 39173929.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Mills J, Chanock RM, Nusinoff SR, et al. Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. I. Behavior in tissue culture and in experimental animals. J Infect Dis 1971; 123: 145157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Hahn GL. Dynamic responses of cattle to thermal heat loads. J Anim Sci 1999; 77 (suppl 2): 1020.

  • 13. Thom EC. The discomfort index. Weatherwise 1959; 12: 5761.

  • 14. Radostits O. Control of infectious diseases in food-producing animals. Herd health: food animal production medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2001; 147188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Hanzlicek GA, White BJ, Mosier D, et al. Serial evaluation of physiologic, pathological, and behavioral changes related to disease progression of experimentally induced Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia in postweaned calves. Am J Vet Res 2010; 71: 359369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Davis MS, Mader TL, Holt SM, et al. Strategies to reduce feedlot cattle heat stress: effects on tympanic temperature. J Anim Sci 2003; 81: 649661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Feuz DM, Umberger WJ. Beef cow-calf production. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2003; 19: 339363.

  • 18. Mintert J. Beef feedlot industry. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2003; 19: 387395.

  • 19. Seath DM, Miller GD. The relative importance of high temperature and high humidity as factors influencing respiration rate, body temperature, and pulse rate of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 1946; 29: 465472.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Stokka GL, Smith J, Kuhl G, et al. Heat stress in feedlot cattle. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1996; 18:S296S302.

  • 21. Mader TL, Johnson LJ, Gaughan JB. A comprehensive index for assessing environmental stress in animals. J Anim Sci 2010; 88: 21532165.

Advertisement

Effects of weather variables on thermoregulation of calves during periods of extreme heat

Miles E. Theurer BS1, David E. Anderson DVM, MS2, Brad J. White DVM, MS3, Matt D. Miesner DVM, MS4, and Robert L. Larson DVM, PhD5
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, relative barometric pressure, and temperature-humidity index (THI) on nasal submucosal and rectal temperatures in cattle during extreme summer conditions.

Animals—20 black crossbred beef heifers (mean body weight, 217.8 kg).

Procedures—Nasal submucosal and rectal temperatures were monitored every 2 hours for 24 hours on 3 nonconsecutive days when ambient temperature was forecasted to exceed 32.2°C. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and relative barometric pressure were continuously monitored at a remote weather station located at the research facility. The THI was calculated and used in the livestock weather safety index (LWSI). Relationships between nasal submucosal or rectal temperature and weather variables were evaluated.

Results—Nasal submucosal and rectal temperatures were related to all weather variables monitored. A positive relationship was determined for ambient temperature and THI with both nasal submucosal and rectal temperatures. A negative relationship was evident for nasal submucosal and rectal temperature with relative humidity, wind speed, and relative barometric pressure. Nasal submucosal and rectal temperatures increased with increasing severity of LWSI category.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Effects of environmental conditions on thermoregulation in calves exposed to extreme heat were detected. The positive relationship between nasal submucosal temperature and ambient temperature and THI raised concerns about the efficacy of intranasal administration of temperature-sensitive modified-live virus vaccines during periods of extreme heat. Environmental conditions must be considered when rectal temperature is used as a diagnostic tool for identifying morbid cattle.

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, relative barometric pressure, and temperature-humidity index (THI) on nasal submucosal and rectal temperatures in cattle during extreme summer conditions.

Animals—20 black crossbred beef heifers (mean body weight, 217.8 kg).

Procedures—Nasal submucosal and rectal temperatures were monitored every 2 hours for 24 hours on 3 nonconsecutive days when ambient temperature was forecasted to exceed 32.2°C. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and relative barometric pressure were continuously monitored at a remote weather station located at the research facility. The THI was calculated and used in the livestock weather safety index (LWSI). Relationships between nasal submucosal or rectal temperature and weather variables were evaluated.

Results—Nasal submucosal and rectal temperatures were related to all weather variables monitored. A positive relationship was determined for ambient temperature and THI with both nasal submucosal and rectal temperatures. A negative relationship was evident for nasal submucosal and rectal temperature with relative humidity, wind speed, and relative barometric pressure. Nasal submucosal and rectal temperatures increased with increasing severity of LWSI category.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Effects of environmental conditions on thermoregulation in calves exposed to extreme heat were detected. The positive relationship between nasal submucosal temperature and ambient temperature and THI raised concerns about the efficacy of intranasal administration of temperature-sensitive modified-live virus vaccines during periods of extreme heat. Environmental conditions must be considered when rectal temperature is used as a diagnostic tool for identifying morbid cattle.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Anderson's present address is Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

The study was performed at Kansas State University.

This manuscript represents a portion of a dissertation submitted by Mr. Theurer to the Kansas State University Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Doctor of Philosophy degree.

Supported by Merck Animal Health.

The authors thank Dr. Mark Spire for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Anderson (dander48@utk.edu).