• 1. Patterson-Kane JC, Carrick JB, Axon JE, et al. The pathology of bronchointerstitial pneumonia in young foals associated with the first outbreak of equine influenza in Australia. Equine Vet J 2008; 40: 199203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Mumford JA, Hannant D, Jessett DM. Experimental infection of ponies with equine influenza (H3N8) viruses by intranasal inoculation or exposure to aerosols. Equine Vet J 1990; 22: 9398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Willoughby R, Ecker G, McKee S, et al. The effects of equine rhinovirus, influenza virus and herpesvirus infection on tracheal clearance rate in horses. Can J Vet Res 1992; 56: 115121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Guo Y, Wang M, Zheng GS, et al. Seroepidemiological and molecular evidence for the presence of two H3N8 equine influenza viruses in China in 1993–94. J Gen Virol 1995; 76: 20092014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Daly JM, Lai AC, Binns MM, et al. Antigenic and genetic evolution of equine H3N8 influenza A viruses. J Gen Virol 1996; 77: 661671.

  • 6. Guthrie AJ, Stevens KB, Bosman PP. The circumstances surrounding the outbreak and spread of equine influenza in South Africa. Rev Sci Tech 1999; 18: 179185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Newton JR, Townsend HG, Wood JL, et al. Immunity to equine influenza: relationship of vaccine-induced antibody in young Thoroughbred racehorses to protection against field infection with influenza A/equine-2 viruses (H3N8). Equine Vet J 2000; 32: 6574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Breathnach CC, Yeargan MR, Sheoran AS, et al. The mucosal humoral immune response of the horse to infective challenge and vaccination with equine herpesvirus-1 antigens. Equine Vet J 2001; 33: 651657.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Cowled B, Ward MP, Hamilton S, et al. The equine influenza epidemic in Australia: spatial and temporal descriptive analyses of a large propagating epidemic. Prev Vet Med 2009; 92: 6070.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Perkins GA, Goodman LB, Tsujimura K, et al. Investigation of the prevalence of neurologic equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1) in a 23-year retrospective analysis (1984–2007). Vet Microbiol 2009; 139: 375378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Ditchfield J, Macpherson LW, Zbitnew A. Upper respiratory disease in Thoroughbred horses: studies of its viral etiology in the Toronto area, 1960 to 1963. Can J Comp Med 1965; 29: 1822.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Carman S, Rosendal S, Huber L, et al. Infectious agents in acute respiratory disease in horses in Ontario. J Vet Diagn Invest 1997; 9: 1723.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Klaey M, Sanchez-Higgins M, Leadon DP, et al. Field case study of equine rhinovirus 1 infection: clinical signs and clinicopathology. Equine Vet J 1998; 30: 267269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Diaz-Mendez A, Viel L, Hewson J, et al. Surveillance of equine respiratory viruses in Ontario. Can J Vet Res 2010; 74: 271278.

  • 15. Sutton GA, Viel L, Carman PS, et al. Study of the duration and distribution of equine influenza virus subtype 2 (H3N8) antigens in experimentally infected ponies in vivo. Can J Vet Res 1997; 61: 113120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Newton JR, Daly JM, Spencer L, et al. Description of the outbreak of equine influenza (H3N8) in the United Kingdom in 2003, during which recently vaccinated horses in Newmarket developed respiratory disease. Vet Rec 2006; 158: 185192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Plummer G. An equine respiratory virus with enterovirus properties. Nature 1962; 195: 519520.

  • 18. Plummer G, Kerry JB. Studies on an equine respiratory virus. Vet Rec 1962; 74: 967970.

  • 19. Li F, Drummer HE, Ficorilli N, et al. Identification of noncytopathic equine rhinovirus 1 as a cause of acute febrile respiratory disease in horses. J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35: 937943.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. McCollum WH, Timoney PJ. Studies on the seroprevalence and frequency of equine rhinovirus-I and -II infection in normal horse urine, in Proceedings. 6th Int Conf Equine Infect Dis 1991;8387.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Meerhoff TJ, Houben ML, Coenjaerts FE, et al. Detection of multiple respiratory pathogens during primary respiratory infection: nasal swab versus nasopharyngeal aspirate using realtime polymerase chain reaction. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2010; 29: 365371.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Papadopoulos NG, Stanciu LA, Papi A, et al. A defective type 1 response to rhinovirus in atopic asthma. Thorax 2002; 57: 328332.

  • 23. Bizzintino J, Lee WM, Laing IA, et al. Association between human rhinovirus C and severity of acute asthma in children. Eur Respir J 2011; 37: 10371042.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Wernery U, Knowles NJ, Hamblin C, et al. Abortions in dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) caused by equine rhinitis A virus. J Gen Virol 2008; 89: 660666.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Lynch SE, Gilkerson JR, Symes SJ, et al. Persistence and chronic urinary shedding of the aphthovirus equine rhinitis A virus. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 36: 95103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Canadian Council on Animal Care. CCAC guidelines on: the care and use of farm animals in research, teaching and testing. Available at: www.ccac.ca/Documents/Standards/Guidelines/Farm_Animals.pdf. Accessed Oct 1, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Borchers K, Wolfinger U, Ludwig H, et al. Virological and molecular biological investigations into equine herpes virus type 2 (EHV-2) experimental infections. Virus Res 1998; 55: 101106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Cutler TJ, MacKay RJ, Ginn PE, et al. Immunoconversion against Sarcocystis neurona in normal and dexamethasone-treated horses challenged with S. neurona sporocysts. Vet Parasitol 2001; 95: 197210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Saville WJ, Stich RW, Reed SM, et al. Utilization of stress in the development of an equine model for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Vet Parasitol 2001; 95: 211222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Hare JE, Viel L. Pulmonary eosinophilia associated with increased airway responsiveness in young racing horses. J Vet Intern Med 1998; 12: 163170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Hoffman AM, Viel L, Prescott JF, et al. Association of microbiologic flora with clinical, endoscopic, and pulmonary cytologic findings in foals with distal respiratory tract infection. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 16151622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Diaz-Mendez A, Viel L, Shewen P, et al. Genomic analysis of a Canadian equine rhinitis A virus reveals low diversity among field isolates. Virus Genes 2013; 46: 280286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Hoffman AM, Viel L, Staempfli HR, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of bronchoalveolar lavage and protected catheter brush methods for isolating bacteria from foals with experimentally induced pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 18031807.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Derksen FJ, Robinson NE, Armstrong PJ, et al. Airway reactivity in ponies with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). J Appl Physiol 1985; 58: 598604.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Willoughby RA, McDonell WN. Pulmonary function testing in horses. Vet Clin North Am Large Anim Pract 1979; 1: 171196.

  • 36. Newton JR, Verheyen K, Wood JLN, et al. Equine influenza in the United Kingdom in 1998. Vet Rec 1999; 145: 449452.

  • 37. Dynon K, Black WD, Ficorilli N, et al. Detection of viruses in nasal swab samples from horses with acute, febrile, respiratory disease using virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction and serology. Aust Vet J 2007; 85: 4650.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Suzuki T, Yamaya M, Sekizawa K, et al. Effects of dexamethasone on rhinovirus infection in cultured human tracheal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2000; 278: 6071.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Characteristics of respiratory tract disease in horses inoculated with equine rhinitis A virus

Andrés Diaz-Méndez MedVet, PhD1,2, Joanne Hewson DVM, PhD3,4, Patricia Shewen DVM, PhD5, éva Nagy DVM, PhD, DSc6, and Laurent Viel DVM, PhD7
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 5 Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 6 Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 7 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.

Abstract

Objective—To develop a method for experimental induction of equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) infection in equids and to determine the clinical characteristics of such infection.

Animals—8 ponies (age, 8 to 12 months) seronegative for antibodies against ERAV.

Procedures—Nebulization was used to administer ERAV (strain ERAV/ON/05; n = 4 ponies) or cell culture medium (control ponies; 4) into airways of ponies; 4 previously ERAV-inoculated ponies were reinoculated 1 year later. Physical examinations and pulmonary function testing were performed at various times for 21 days after ERAV or mock inoculation. Various types of samples were obtained for virus isolation, blood samples were obtained for serologic testing, and clinical scores were determined for various variables.

Results—ERAV-inoculated ponies developed respiratory tract disease characterized by pyrexia, nasal discharge, adventitious lung sounds, and enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. Additionally, these animals had purulent mucus in lower airways up to the last evaluation time 21 days after inoculation (detected endoscopically). The virus was isolated from various samples obtained from lower and upper airways of ERAV-inoculated ponies up to 7 days after exposure; this time corresponded with an increase in serum titers of neutralizing antibodies against ERAV. None of the ponies developed clinical signs of disease after reinoculation 1 year later.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated ERAV induced respiratory tract disease in seronegative ponies. However, ponies with neutralizing antibodies against ERAV did not develop clinical signs of disease when reinoculated with the virus. Therefore, immunization of ponies against ERAV could prevent respiratory tract disease attributable to that virus in such animals.

Contributor Notes

This manuscript represents a portion of a thesis submitted by Dr. Diaz-Méndez to the University of Guelph Ontario Veterinary College Department of Pathobiology as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Doctor of Philosophy degree.

Presented as a podium presentation at the 57th American Association of Equine Practitioners Annual Convention, San Antonio, Tex, November 2011.

Supported by the EP Taylor Equine Research Fund, the Equine Guelph Research Program, and Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica.

The authors thank Drs. Leslie Huber and Matthew Allossery for assistance with data and sample collection.

Address correspondence to Dr. Diaz-Méndez (adiaz@uoguelph.ca).