Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid as an emetic in dogs

Hitoshi Kakiuchi Laboratory of Physiology II, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan.

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Asako Kawarai-Shimamura Corporate Planning Department, Anicom Holdings Inc, 1-5-22 Shimoochiai, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 161-0033, Japan.
Emergency-Room, DVMs Animal Medical Center Yokohama, 966-5 Kawamukocho, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 224-0044, Japan.

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Yoko Fujii Laboratory of Surgery I, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan.

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Takuma Aoki Laboratory of Surgery I, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan.

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Masaki Yoshiike CT Center, DVMs Animal Medical Center Yokohama, 966-5 Kawamukocho, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 224-0044, Japan.

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Hayato Arai Laboratory of Physiology II, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan.
Corporate Planning Department, Anicom Holdings Inc, 1-5-22 Shimoochiai, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 161-0033, Japan.
Emergency-Room, DVMs Animal Medical Center Yokohama, 966-5 Kawamukocho, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 224-0044, Japan.
Laboratory of Surgery I, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan.
Laboratory of Surgery I, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan.
CT Center, DVMs Animal Medical Center Yokohama, 966-5 Kawamukocho, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 224-0044, Japan.
TRVA Animal Medical Center, Tokyo Jonan Regional Veterinary Medicine Promotional Association, 8-19-12, Fukasawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-0081, Japan.
Laboratory of Physiology II, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan.

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Atsushi Nakamura TRVA Animal Medical Center, Tokyo Jonan Regional Veterinary Medicine Promotional Association, 8-19-12, Fukasawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-0081, Japan.

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Kensuke Orito Laboratory of Physiology II, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine dose dependency of tranexamic acid–induced emesis and the time course of the antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid in dogs.

Animals—10 Beagles.

Procedures—In a dose-escalating experiment, ascending doses of tranexamic acid (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg, IV) were administered at 5-minute intervals until vomiting was observed. In a separate single-dose experiment, ascending doses of tranexamic acid (20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg, IV) were administered at 1-week intervals until vomiting was observed. Time to onset of vomiting and number of vomiting episodes were measured in both experiments. In a coagulation experiment, a single 50 mg/kg bolus of tranexamic acid was administered, and blood was obtained 1 hour before and 20 minutes, 3 hours, and 24 hours after administration. Antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid was evaluated by use of a modified rotational thromboelastography method.

Results—Tranexamic acid induced vomiting in a dose-dependent manner. Vomiting frequency was < 2 episodes, and vomiting concluded < 250 seconds after administration. Antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid was significantly higher at 20 minutes following administration, but not different by 24 hours, when compared with the potency measured before administration. No adverse effects were observed in any experiment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of tranexamic acid induced emesis in a dose-dependent manner. The antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid decreased in a time-dependent manner and was resolved < 24 hours after administration. Further studies are warranted to investigate the emetic and other adverse effects of tranexamic acid in dogs of various breeds and ages.

Abstract

Objective—To determine dose dependency of tranexamic acid–induced emesis and the time course of the antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid in dogs.

Animals—10 Beagles.

Procedures—In a dose-escalating experiment, ascending doses of tranexamic acid (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg, IV) were administered at 5-minute intervals until vomiting was observed. In a separate single-dose experiment, ascending doses of tranexamic acid (20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg, IV) were administered at 1-week intervals until vomiting was observed. Time to onset of vomiting and number of vomiting episodes were measured in both experiments. In a coagulation experiment, a single 50 mg/kg bolus of tranexamic acid was administered, and blood was obtained 1 hour before and 20 minutes, 3 hours, and 24 hours after administration. Antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid was evaluated by use of a modified rotational thromboelastography method.

Results—Tranexamic acid induced vomiting in a dose-dependent manner. Vomiting frequency was < 2 episodes, and vomiting concluded < 250 seconds after administration. Antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid was significantly higher at 20 minutes following administration, but not different by 24 hours, when compared with the potency measured before administration. No adverse effects were observed in any experiment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of tranexamic acid induced emesis in a dose-dependent manner. The antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid decreased in a time-dependent manner and was resolved < 24 hours after administration. Further studies are warranted to investigate the emetic and other adverse effects of tranexamic acid in dogs of various breeds and ages.

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