• 1. Klech H, Pohl W. Technical recommendations and guidelines for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Eur Respir J 1989; 2:561585.

  • 2. Hawkins EC. Bronchoalveolar lavage. In: King LG, ed. Textbook of respiratory disease in dogs and cats. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2004;118128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Hawkins EC, DeNicola DB, Kuehn NF. Bronchoalveolar lavage in the evaluation of pulmonary disease in the dog and cat: state of the art. J Vet Intern Med 1990; 4:267274.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Hawkins EC, DeNicola DB, Plier ML. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of spontaneous respiratory tract disease in dogs: a retrospective study. J Vet Intern Med 1995; 9:386392.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. McCauley M, Atwell RB, Sutton RH, et al. Unguided bronchoalveolar lavage techniques and residual effects in dogs. Aus Vet J 1998; 76:161165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Mordelet-Dambrine MM, Arnoux AA, Stanislas-Leguern GG, et al. Processing of lung lavage fluid causes variability in bronchoalveolar cell count. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984; 130:305306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Melamies MA, Jarvinen AK, Seppala KM, et al. Comparison of results for weight-adjusted and fixed-amount bronchoalveolar lavage techniques in healthy Beagles. Am J Vet Res 2011; 72:694698.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Woods KS, Defarges AMN, Abrams-Ogg ACG, et al. Comparison between manual aspiration via polyethylene tubing and aspiration via a suction pump with a suction trap connection for performing bronchoalveolar lavage in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 2013; 74:523529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Padrid PA. Laryngoscopy and tracheobronchoscopy of the dog and cat. In: Tams TR, Rawlings CA, eds. Small animal endoscopy. 3rd ed. St Louis: Elsevier Mosby, 2011;331359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Ward C, Walters EH. Bronchoalveolar lavage. In: Rogers DF, Donnelly LE, eds. Human airway inflammation: sampling techniques and analytical protocols. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press Inc, 2001;4370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 1959; 37:911917.

  • 12. Lam S, Leriche JC, Kijek K, et al. Effect of bronchial lavage volume on cellular and protein recovery. Chest 1985; 88:856859.

  • 13. Baughman RP. Technical aspects of bronchoalveolar lavage: recommendations for a standard procedure. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 28:475485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Creevey KE. Airway evaluation and flexible endoscopic procedures in dogs and cats: laryngoscopy, transtracheal wash, tracheobronchoscopy, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2009; 39:869880.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. English K, Cowell RL, Tyler RD, et al. Transtracheal and bronchoalveolar washes. In: Cowell RL, Tyler RD, Meinkoth JH, et al, eds. Diagnostic cytology and hematology of the dog and cat. 3rd ed. St Louis: Mosby Elsevier, 2008;256277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Rosell A, Xaubet A, Agusti C, et al. A new BAL fluid instillation and aspiration technique: a multicenter randomized study. Respir Med 2006; 100:529535.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Sampsonas F, Kontoyiannis DP, Dickey BF, et al. Performance of a standardized bronchoalveolar lavage protocol in a comprehensive cancer center: a prospective 2-year study. Cancer 2011; 117:34243433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Comparison of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained by manual aspiration with a handheld syringe with that obtained by automated suction pump aspiration from healthy dogs

Katharine S. Woods DVM1, Alice M. N. Defarges DMV, MSc2, Anthony C. G. Abrams-Ogg DVM, DVSc3, Howard Dobson BVM&S, DVSc4,5, Brigitte A. Brisson DMV, DVSc6, Laurent Viel DVM, PhD7, and Dorothee Bienzle DVM, PhD8
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 5 CanCog Technologies Inc, 24 Lippincott St, Toronto, ON M5T 2R5, Canada.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 7 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 8 Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Abstract

Objective—To compare bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained by manual aspiration (MA) with a handheld syringe with that obtained by suction pump aspiration (SPA) in healthy dogs.

Animals—13 adult Beagles.

Procedures—Each dog was anesthetized and bronchoscopic BAL was performed. The MA technique was accomplished with a 35-mL syringe attached to the bronchoscope biopsy channel. The SPA technique was achieved with negative pressure (5 kPa) applied to the bronchoscope suction valve with a disposable suction trap. Both aspiration techniques were performed in each dog in randomized order on opposite caudal lung lobes. Two 1 mL/kg aliquots of warm saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were infused per site. For each BAL fluid sample, the percentage of retrieved fluid was calculated, the total nucleated cell count (TNCC) and differential cell count were determined, and semiquantitative assessment of slide quality was performed. Comparisons were made between MA and SPA techniques for each outcome.

Results—1 dog was removed from the study because of illness. The mean percentage of fluid retrieved (mean difference, 23%) and median TNCC (median distribution of differences, 100 cells/μL) for samples obtained by SPA were significantly greater than those for samples obtained by MA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy dogs, BAL by SPA resulted in a significantly higher percentage of fluid retrieval and samples with a higher TNCC than did MA. Further evaluation of aspiration techniques in dogs with respiratory tract disease is required to assess whether SPA improves the diagnostic yield of BAL samples.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Woods’ present address is Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.

This manuscript represents a portion of a thesis submitted by Dr. Woods to the Ontario Veterinary College Department of Clinical Studies as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Doctor of Veterinary Science degree.

Supported by the Ontario Veterinary College Pet Trust.

Presented in abstract form at the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Seattle, June 2013.

The authors thank Dr. Doris Dyson and Jennifer Brandow for technical assistance and Gabrielle Monteith for assistance with statistical analyses.

Address correspondence to Dr. Woods (woods.katharine@gmail.com).