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Evaluation of varying morphological parameters on the biomechanics of a cranial cruciate ligament–deficient or intact canine stifle joint with a computer simulation model

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  • 1 Department of Bioengineering, J. B. Speed School of Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202.
  • | 2 Department of Bioengineering, J. B. Speed School of Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the influence of varying morphological parameters on canine stifle joint biomechanics by use of a 3-D rigid-body canine pelvic limb computer model that simulated an intact and cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)–deficient stifle joint across the stance phase of gait at a walk.

Sample—Data from computer simulations.

Procedures—Computer model morphological parameters, including patellar ligament insertion location, tibial plateau angle (TPA), and femoral condyle diameter (FCD), were incrementally altered to determine their influence on outcome measures (ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation) during simulation of the stance phase of gait at a walk. Outcome measures were assessed for each scenario and compared between an intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joint with the sensitivity index (the percentage change in outcome measure divided by the percentage change in input parameter).

Results—In a CrCL-intact stifle joint, ligament loads were most sensitive to TPA. In a CrCL-deficient stifle joint, outcome measures were most sensitive to TPA with the exception of caudal cruciate ligament and lateral collateral ligament loads, which were sensitive to FCD and TPA. Relative tibial translation was sensitive to TPA and patellar ligament insertion location, whereas relative tibial rotation was most sensitive to TPA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The computer model sensitivity analyses predicted that individual parameters, particularly TPA and FCD, influence stifle joint biomechanics. Therefore, tibial and femoral morphological parameters may affect the likelihood, prevention, and management of CrCL deficiency.

Contributor Notes

This manuscript represents a portion of a dissertation submitted by Dr. Brown to the University of Louisville Department of Mechanical Engineering as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Doctor of Philosophy degree.

Supported by the AKC Canine Health Foundation Grant No. 01533-A. Support was also provided by the Grosscurth Biomechanics Endowment, University of Louisville.

The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Foundation.

Address correspondence to Dr. Bertocci (g.bertocci@louisville.edu).