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Assessment of left ventricular volumes by use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional echocardiography versus magnetic resonance imaging in healthy dogs

Judith MeyerSmall Animal ClinicUniversity of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

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Patrick WefstaedtSmall Animal ClinicUniversity of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

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Peter DziallasSmall Animal ClinicUniversity of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

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Martin BeyerbachDepartment of Biometry, Epidemiology and Information ProcessingUniversity of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

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Ingo NolteSmall Animal ClinicUniversity of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

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Stephan O. HungerbühlerSmall Animal ClinicUniversity of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

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Abstract

Objective—To quantify left ventricle (LV) volumes by use of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D echocardiography versus MRI in dogs.

Animals—10 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—During anesthesia, each dog underwent an echocardiographic examination via the Teichholz method, performed on the basis of standard M-mode frames (1-D); the monoplane Simpson method of disk (via 2-D loops); real-time triplane echocardiography (RTTPE) with a 3-D probe; and real-time 3-D echocardiography with a 3-D probe. Afterward, cardiac MRI was performed. Values for the LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction (EF) were compared between each echocardiographic method and the reference method (cardiac MRI).

Results—No significant differences for EDV, ESV, and EF were detected between RTTPE and cardiac MRI. Excellent correlations (r = 0.97, 0.98, and 0.95 for EDV, ESV, and EF, respectively) were found between RTTPE and values for cardiac MRI. The other echocardiographic methods yielded values significantly different from cardiac MRI and results correlated less well with results of cardiac MRI for EDV, ESV, and EF. Use of the Teichholz method resulted in LV volume overestimation, whereas the Simpson method of disk and real-time 3-D echocardiography significantly underestimated LV volumes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of RTTPE yielded excellent correlations and nonsignificant differences with cardiac MRI and is a suitable method for routine veterinary cardiac examination.

Abstract

Objective—To quantify left ventricle (LV) volumes by use of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D echocardiography versus MRI in dogs.

Animals—10 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—During anesthesia, each dog underwent an echocardiographic examination via the Teichholz method, performed on the basis of standard M-mode frames (1-D); the monoplane Simpson method of disk (via 2-D loops); real-time triplane echocardiography (RTTPE) with a 3-D probe; and real-time 3-D echocardiography with a 3-D probe. Afterward, cardiac MRI was performed. Values for the LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction (EF) were compared between each echocardiographic method and the reference method (cardiac MRI).

Results—No significant differences for EDV, ESV, and EF were detected between RTTPE and cardiac MRI. Excellent correlations (r = 0.97, 0.98, and 0.95 for EDV, ESV, and EF, respectively) were found between RTTPE and values for cardiac MRI. The other echocardiographic methods yielded values significantly different from cardiac MRI and results correlated less well with results of cardiac MRI for EDV, ESV, and EF. Use of the Teichholz method resulted in LV volume overestimation, whereas the Simpson method of disk and real-time 3-D echocardiography significantly underestimated LV volumes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of RTTPE yielded excellent correlations and nonsignificant differences with cardiac MRI and is a suitable method for routine veterinary cardiac examination.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the Ethical Committee of the Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety.

Presented in abstract form at the 21st Annual InnLab Meeting, Munich, February 2013.

Address correspondence to Dr. Wefstaedt (patrick.wefstaedt@tiho-hannover.de).