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Effect of dexmedetomidine, morphine-lidocaine-ketamine, and dexmedetomidine-morphine-lidocaine-ketamine constant rate infusions on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane and bispectral index in dogs

Lisa Sams Ebner DVM, MS1, Phillip Lerche BVSc, PhD2, Richard M. Bednarski DVM, MS3, and John A. E. Hubbell DVM, MS4
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of dexmedetomidine, morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK), and dexmedetomidine-morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (DMLK) constant rate infusions on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane and bispectral index (BIS) in dogs.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Each dog was anesthetized 4 times with a 7-day washout period between anesthetic episodes. During the first anesthetic episode, the MAC of isoflurane (baseline) was established. During the 3 subsequent anesthetic episodes, the MAC of isoflurane was determined following constant rate infusion of dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg/kg/h), MLK (morphine, 0.2 mg/kg/h; lidocaine, 3 mg/kg/h; and ketamine, 0.6 mg/kg/h), or DMLK (dexmedetomidine, 0.5 μg/kg/h; morphine, 0.2 mg/kg/h; lidocaine, 3 mg/kg/h; and ketamine 0.6 mg/kg/h). Among treatments, MAC of isoflurane was compared by means of a Friedman test with Conover posttest comparisons, and heart rate, direct arterial pressures, cardiac output, body temperature, inspired and expired gas concentrations, arterial blood gas values, and BIS were compared with repeated-measures ANOVA and a Dunn test for multiple comparisons.

Results—Infusion of dexmedetomidine, MLK, and DMLK decreased the MAC of isoflurane from baseline by 30%, 55%, and 90%, respectively. Mean heart rates during dexmedetomidine and DMLK treatments was lower than that during MLK treatment. Compared with baseline values, mean heart rate decreased for all treatments, arterial pressure increased for the DMLK treatment, cardiac output decreased for the dexmedetomidine treatment, and BIS increased for the MLK and DMLK treatments. Time to extubation and sternal recumbency did not differ among treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infusion of dexmedetomidine, MLK, or DMLK reduced the MAC of isoflurane in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2013;74:963–970)

Contributor Notes

This manuscript represents a portion of a thesis submitted by Dr. Ebner to the Graduate Program in Comparative and Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine of The Ohio State University as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Science degree.

Supported by Canine Research Funds, an intramural grant from the College of Veterinary Medicine of The Ohio State University.

Address correspondence to Dr. Ebner (lisasamsdvm@yahoo.com).