• 1. Altman RB. Radiosurgery. Semin Avian Exot Pet Med 2000; 9: 180183.

  • 2. Rupley AE, Parrott-Nenezian T. The use of surgical lasers in exotic and avian practice. Vet Clin North Am Sm Anim Pract 2002; 32: 703721.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Mader DR, Bennett RA, Funk RS, et al. Surgery. In: Mader DR, ed. Reptile medicine and surgery. 2nd ed. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2006;581630.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Lucroy MD, Bartels KE. Surgical lasers. In: Slatter D, ed. Textbook of small animal surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2003;227235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Hall RR, Hill DW, Beach AD. A carbon dioxide surgical laser. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1971; 48: 181188.

  • 6. Bartels KE. Lasers in veterinary medicine—where have we been, and where are we going? Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2002; 32: 495515.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Aronoff BL. Lasers in general surgery. World J Surg 1983; 7: 681683.

  • 8. Ackerman LJ. Dermatologic application of radio-wave surgery (radiosurgery). Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1997; 19: 463471.

  • 9. Hernandez-Divers SJ. Radiosurgery and laser in zoological practice: separating fact from fiction. J Exot Pet Med 2008; 17: 165174.

  • 10. Miller WW. Using high-frequency radiowave technology in veterinary surgery. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 2004; 99: 796802.

  • 11. Sackman J. Surgical modalities: laser, radiofrequency, ultrasonic, and electrosurgery. In: Tobias KM, Johnston SA, eds. Veterinary surgery: small animal. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2012;180186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Rizzo LB, Ritchey JW, Higbee RG, et al. Histologic comparison of skin biopsy specimens collected by use of carbon dioxide or 810-nm diode lasers from dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 225: 15621566.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Chinali G, Ferulano GP, Vanni L, et al. Liver regeneration after atypical hepatectomy in the rat. A comparison of CO2 laser with scalpel and electrical diathermy. Eur Surg Res 1983; 15: 284288.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Palmer SE, McGill LD. Thermal injury by in vitro incision of equine skin with electrosurgery, radiosurgery, and a carbon dioxide laser. Vet Surg 1992; 21: 348350.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Weber HP, Heinze A, Enders S, et al. Laser versus radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular myocardium in dogs: a comparative test. Cardiology 1997; 88: 346352.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Silverman EB, Read RW, Boyle CR, et al. Histologic comparison of canine skin biopsies collected using monopolar electrosurgery, CO2 laser, radiowave radiosurgery, skin biopsy punch, and scalpel. Vet Surg 2007; 36: 5056.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Hernandez-Divers S, Stahl SJ, Cooper T, et al. Comparison between CO2 laser and 4.0MHz radiosurgery for incising skin in white Carneau pigeons (Columba livia). J Avian Med Surg 2008; 22: 103107.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Hernandez-Divers S, Stahl SJ, Rakich PM, et al. Comparison between CO2 laser and 4.0MHz radiosurgery for making incisions in the skin and muscles of green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Vet Rec 2009; 164: 1316.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Jacobson ER. Overview of reptile biology, anatomy and histology. In: Jacobson ER, ed. Infectious diseases and pathology of reptiles. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, 2007;1130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Cooper JE. Dermatology. In: Mader DR, ed. Reptile medicine and surgery. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2006;196216.

  • 21. Smith DA, Barker IK. Healing of cutaneous wounds in the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Can J Vet Res 1988; 52: 111119.

  • 22. Bennett RA, Lock BA. Nonreproductive surgery in reptiles. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2000; 3: 715731.

  • 23. Smith DA, Barker IK, Allen OB. The effect of ambient temperature and type of wound on healing of cutaneous wounds in the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Can J Vet Res 1988; 52: 120128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Smith DA, Barker IK, Allen OB. The effect of certain topical medications on healing of cutaneous wounds in the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Can J Vet Res 1988; 52: 129133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Bennett RA. Reptilian surgery part I: basic principles. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1989; 11: 1020.

  • 26. Bennett RA. Reptilian surgery part II: management of surgical diseases. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1989; 11: 122133.

  • 27. Bennett RA. Soft tissue surgery in reptiles. In: Bojrab JM, Ellison GW, Slocum B, eds. Current techniques in small animal surgery. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1998;771776.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Roush JK. Biomaterials and surgical implants. In: Slatter D, ed. Textbook of small animal surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2003;141148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Bellenger CR. Sutures part I: the purpose of sutures and available suture materials. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1982; 4: 507515.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Schmiedt CW. Suture material, tissue staplers, ligation devices, and closure methods. In: Tobias KM, Johnston SA, eds. Veterinary surgery: small animal. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2012;180186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Arashiro DS, Rapley JW, Cobb CM, et al. Histologic evaluation of porcine skin incisions produce by CO2 laser, electrosurgery, and scalpel. Int J Periont Rest Dent 1996; 16: 479491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Hernandez-Divers S. Diode laser surgery: principles and application in exotic animals. Semin Avian Exot Pet Med 2002; 11: 208220.

  • 33. Holt TL, Mann FA. Soft tissue application of lasers. Vet Clin North Am Sm Anim Pract 2002; 32: 569599.

  • 34. Klause SE, Roberts SM. Lasers and veterinary surgery. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1990; 12: 15651576.

  • 35. Treat MR, Oz MC, Bass LS. New technologies and future applications of surgical lasers. The right tool for the right job. Surg Clin North Am 1992; 72: 705742.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Katzir A. Lasers and optical fibers in medicine. San Diego: Academic Press, 1993;59106.

  • 37. Pearcs J, Thomsen S. Rate process analysis of thermal damage. In: Welch AJ, van Gamert MJC, eds. Optical-thermal response of laser-irradiated tissue. New York: Plenum Press, 1995;561606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. LX-20SP Novapulse laser system—operator's manual. Bothell, Wash: Luxar Corp, 1996.

  • 39. Sanders DL, Reinisch L. Wound healing and collagen thermal damage in 7.5-microsec pulsed CO2 laser skin incisions. Lasers Surg Med 2000; 26: 2232.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Molgat YM, Pollack SV, Hurwitz JJ, et al. Comparative study of wound healing in porcine skin with CO2 laser and other surgical modalities: preliminary findings. Int J Dermatol 1995; 34: 4247.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Hall RR. The healing of tissues incised by a carbon-dioxide laser. Br J Surg 1971; 58: 222225.

  • 42. Schroder T, Hukki J, Castren M, et al. Comparison of surgical lasers and conventional methods in skin incisions. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 1989; 23: 187190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. Middleton WG, Tees DA, Ostroqski M. Comparative gross and histological effects of the CO2 laser, Nd-YAG laser, scalpel, Shaw scalpel, and cutting cautery on skin in rats. J Otolaryngol 1993; 22: 167170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. Montgomery TC, Sharp JB, Bellina JH, et al. Comparative gross and histological study of the effects of scalpel, electric knife, and carbon dioxide laser on skin and uterine incisions in dogs. Lasers Surg Med 1983; 3: 922.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45. Durante J. Clinical and histological comparison of tissue damage and healing following incisions with the CO2 laser and stainless steel surgical blade in dogs. J S Afr Vet Assoc 1993; 64: 116120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. McFadden MS, Bennett A, Kinsel MJ, et al. Evaluation of the histologic reactions to commonly used suture materials in the skin and musculature of ball pythons (Python regius). Am J Vet Res 2011; 72: 13971406.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47. US Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA 2012 technical manual. Section III: chapter VI, laser hazards. Available at www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_iii/otm_iii_6.html. Accessed Mar 7, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Comparison of first-intention healing of carbon dioxide laser, 4.0-MHz radiosurgery, and scalpel incisions in ball pythons (Python regius)

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
  • | 2 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
  • | 3 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
  • | 4 Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
  • | 5 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
  • | 6 Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate first-intention healing of CO2 laser, 4.0-MHz radiowave radiosurgery (RWRS), and scalpel incisions in ball pythons (Python regius).

Animals—6 healthy adult ball pythons.

Procedures—A skin biopsy sample was collected, and 2-cm skin incisions (4/modality) were made in each snake under anesthesia and closed with surgical staples on day 0. Incision sites were grossly evaluated and scored daily. One skin biopsy sample per incision type per snake was obtained on days 2, 7, 14, and 30. Necrotic and fibroplastic tissue was measured in histologic sections; samples were assessed and scored for total inflammation, histologic response (based on the measurement of necrotic and fibroplastic tissues and total inflammation score), and other variables. Frequency distributions of gross and histologic variables associated with wound healing were calculated.

Results—Gross wound scores were significantly greater (indicating greater separation of wound edges) for laser incisions than for RWRS and scalpel incisions at all evaluated time points. Necrosis was significantly greater in laser and RWRS incisions than in scalpel incision sites on days 2 and 14 and days 2 and 7, respectively; fibroplasia was significantly greater in laser than in scalpel incision sites on day 30. Histologic response scores were significantly lower for scalpel than for other incision modalities on days 2, 14, and 30.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In snakes, skin incisions made with a scalpel generally had less necrotic tissue than did CO2 laser and RWRS incisions. Comparison of the 3 modalities on the basis of histologic response scores indicated that use of a scalpel was preferable, followed by RWRS and then laser.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate first-intention healing of CO2 laser, 4.0-MHz radiowave radiosurgery (RWRS), and scalpel incisions in ball pythons (Python regius).

Animals—6 healthy adult ball pythons.

Procedures—A skin biopsy sample was collected, and 2-cm skin incisions (4/modality) were made in each snake under anesthesia and closed with surgical staples on day 0. Incision sites were grossly evaluated and scored daily. One skin biopsy sample per incision type per snake was obtained on days 2, 7, 14, and 30. Necrotic and fibroplastic tissue was measured in histologic sections; samples were assessed and scored for total inflammation, histologic response (based on the measurement of necrotic and fibroplastic tissues and total inflammation score), and other variables. Frequency distributions of gross and histologic variables associated with wound healing were calculated.

Results—Gross wound scores were significantly greater (indicating greater separation of wound edges) for laser incisions than for RWRS and scalpel incisions at all evaluated time points. Necrosis was significantly greater in laser and RWRS incisions than in scalpel incision sites on days 2 and 14 and days 2 and 7, respectively; fibroplasia was significantly greater in laser than in scalpel incision sites on day 30. Histologic response scores were significantly lower for scalpel than for other incision modalities on days 2, 14, and 30.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In snakes, skin incisions made with a scalpel generally had less necrotic tissue than did CO2 laser and RWRS incisions. Comparison of the 3 modalities on the basis of histologic response scores indicated that use of a scalpel was preferable, followed by RWRS and then laser.

Contributor Notes

The authors thank Janet Pezzi and Steve Tinkel for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Hodshon (bhodshon@utk.edu).