• 1. Thiel HJ, Collett MS, Gould EA, et al. Family Flaviviridae. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, et al., eds. Eighth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press, 2005;981998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. van Rijn PA, van Gennip HG, Leendertse CH, et al. Subdivision of the pestivirus genus based on envelope glycoprotein E2. Virology 1997; 237: 337348.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Plowright W. Other virus diseases in relation to the JP15 programme, in Proceedings. 1st Tech Rev Meet Joint Campaign Against Rinderpest Phase IV 1969;1923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Schirrmeier H, Strebelow G, Depner K, et al. Genetic and antigenic characterization of an atypical pestivirus isolate, a putative member of a novel pestivirus species. J Gen Virol 2004; 85: 36473652.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Vilcek S, Ridpath JF, Van Campen H, et al. Characterization of a novel pestivirus originating from a pronghorn antelope. Virus Res 2005; 108: 187193.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Kirkland PD, Frost MJ, Finlaison DS, et al. Identification of a novel virus in pigs—Bungowannah virus: a possible new species of pestivirus. Virus Res 2007; 129: 2634.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Ståhl K, Beer M, Schirrmeier H, et al. Atypical ‘HoBi’-like pestiviruses—recent findings and implications thereof. Vet Microbiol 2010; 142: 9093.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Ståhl K, Kampa J, Alenius S, et al. Natural infection of cattle with an atypical ‘HoBi’-like pestivirus—implications for BVD control and for the safety of biological products. Vet Res 2007; 38: 517523.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Decaro N, Lucente MS, Mari V, et al. Atypical pestivirus and severe respiratory disease in calves, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17: 15491552.

  • 10. Xia H, Vijayaraghavan B, Belak S, et al. Detection and identification of the atypical bovine pestiviruses in commercial foetal bovine serum batches. PLoS One 2012; 6: e28553.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Cortez A, Heinemann MB, de Castro MG, et al. Genetic characterization of Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates by partial nucleotide sequencing of the 5′ UTR region. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 2006; 26: 211216.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Decaro N, Lucente M, Mari V, et al. Hobi-like pestivirus in aborted bovine fetuses. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50: 509512.

  • 13. Kampa J, Alenius S, Emanuelson U, et al. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections in dairy herds: self clearance and the detection of seroconversions against a new atypical pestivirus. Vet J 2009; 182: 223230.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Decaro N, Mari V, Lucente MS, et al. Experimental infection of cattle, sheep and pigs with ‘Hobi’-like pestivirus. Vet Microbiol 2012; 155: 165171.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Liebler-Tenorio EM, Ridpath JE, Neill JD. Distribution of viral antigen and development of lesions after experimental infection with highly virulent bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in calves. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63: 15751584.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Liebler-Tenorio EM, Ridpath JF, Neill JD. Lesions and tissue distribution of viral antigen in severe acute versus subclinical acute infection with BVDV2. Biologicals 2003; 31: 119122.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Liebler-Tenorio EM, Ridpath JF, Neill JD. Distribution of viral antigen and development of lesions after experimental infection of calves with a BVDV 2 strain of low virulence. J Vet Diagn Invest 2003; 15: 221232.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Bolin SR, Ridpath JF. Differences in virulence between two noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in calves. Am J Vet Res 1992; 53: 21572163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Ridpath JF, Neill JD, Frey M, et al. Phylogenetic, antigenic and clinical characterization of type 2 BVDV from North America. Vet Microbiol 2000; 77: 145155.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Odeon AC, Kelling CL, Marshall DJ, et al. Experimental infection of calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype II (NY-93). J Vet Diagn Invest 1999; 11: 221228.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Kelling CL, Steffen DJ, Topliff CL, et al. Comparative virulence of isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus type II in experimentally inoculated six- to nine-month-old calves. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63: 13791384.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Corapi WV, Elliott RD, French TW, et al. Thrombocytopenia and hemorrhages in veal calves infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 196: 590596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Corapi WV, French TW, Dubovi EJ. Severe thrombocytopenia in young calves experimentally infected with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Virol 1989; 63: 39343943.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Liebler-Tenorio EM, Ridpath JE, Neill JD. Distribution of viral antigen and tissue lesions in persistent and acute infection with the homologous strain of noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Vet Diagn Invest 2004; 16: 388396.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Bauermann FV, Flores EF, Ridpath JF. Antigenic relationships between bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 and HoBi virus: possible impacts on diagnosis and control. J Vet Diagn Invest 2012; 24: 253261.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Ridpath JF, Driskell EA, Chase CC, et al. Reproductive tract disease associated with inoculation of pregnant white-tailed deer with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Am J Vet Res 2008; 69: 16301636.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Carman S, van Dreumel T, Ridpath J, et al. Severe acute bovine viral diarrhea in Ontario, 1993–1995. J Vet Diagn Invest 1998; 10: 2735.

  • 28. Ridpath JF, Neill JD, Vilcek S, et al. Multiple outbreaks of severe acute BVDV in North America occurring between 1993 and 1995 linked to the same BVDV2 strain. Vet Microbiol 2006; 114: 196204.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine. Calf respiratory scoring chart. Available at: www.vetmed.wisc.edu/dms/fapm/fapmtools/8calf/calf_respiratory_scoring_chart.pdf. Accessed Oct 17, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Larska M, Polak MP, Riitho V, et al. Kinetics of single and dual infection of calves with an Asian atypical bovine pestivirus and a highly virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 35: 381390.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Evermann JF, Barrington GM. Clinical features. In: Goyal SM, Ridpath JF, eds. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: diagnosis, management and control. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 2005;105120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Hessman BE, Fulton RW, Sjeklocha DB, et al. Evaluation of economic effects and the health and performance of the general cattle population after exposure to cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a starter feedlot. Am J Vet Res 2009; 70: 7385.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Comparison of acute infection of calves exposed to a high-virulence or low-virulence bovine viral diarrhea virus or a HoBi-like virus

View More View Less
  • 1 Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 1920 Dayton Ave, Ames, IA 50010.
  • | 2 Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 1920 Dayton Ave, Ames, IA 50010.
  • | 3 Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Virus Section, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
  • | 4 Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 1920 Dayton Ave, Ames, IA 50010.
  • | 5 National Institute of Animal Science, 77 Chuksan gil (564 Omokchun-dong), Gwonsun-Gu, Suwon, Korea.
  • | 6 Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Virus Section, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
  • | 7 Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratory, APHIS, USDA, 1920 Dayton Ave, Ames, IA 50010.
  • | 8 Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 1920 Dayton Ave, Ames, IA 50010.

Abstract

Objective—To compare acute infection of cattle exposed to a high-virulence (HV) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), low-virulence (LV) BVDV, or HoBi-like virus.

Animals—24 Holstein bull calves.

Procedures—Colostrum-deprived 2- to 4-week-old calves, free of BVDV antigen and antibodies, were allocated into 4 groups (6 calves/group). Calves in 3 groups were exposed to an LV BVDV strain (BVDV2-RS886), an HV BVDV strain (BVDV2–1373), or a HoBi-like virus (D32/00 HoBi), whereas calves in the fourth group were not exposed to a virus but were cohoused with calves exposed to the HoBi-like virus. Circulating WBCs, platelets, rectal temperature, and presence of virus in the blood were monitored.

Results—Infection of calves with any of the 3 viruses resulted in reduced numbers of circulating WBCs. Pyrexia was detected in all calves exposed to HV BVDV or LV BVDV but in only 3 of 6 calves exposed to the HoBi-like virus. Diarrhea was observed in 0 of 6 calves exposed to the HoBi-like virus, 2 of 6 calves exposed to the LV BVDV, and 6 of 6 calves exposed to the HV BVDV. The HoBi-like virus was transmitted from acutely infected calves to naïve cohorts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestivirus isolated from water buffalo and cattle in South America, Southeast Asia, and Europe but not from cattle in the United States. Understanding the clinical course of disease caused by HoBi-like pestiviruses will be important for the design of surveillance programs for the United States.

Abstract

Objective—To compare acute infection of cattle exposed to a high-virulence (HV) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), low-virulence (LV) BVDV, or HoBi-like virus.

Animals—24 Holstein bull calves.

Procedures—Colostrum-deprived 2- to 4-week-old calves, free of BVDV antigen and antibodies, were allocated into 4 groups (6 calves/group). Calves in 3 groups were exposed to an LV BVDV strain (BVDV2-RS886), an HV BVDV strain (BVDV2–1373), or a HoBi-like virus (D32/00 HoBi), whereas calves in the fourth group were not exposed to a virus but were cohoused with calves exposed to the HoBi-like virus. Circulating WBCs, platelets, rectal temperature, and presence of virus in the blood were monitored.

Results—Infection of calves with any of the 3 viruses resulted in reduced numbers of circulating WBCs. Pyrexia was detected in all calves exposed to HV BVDV or LV BVDV but in only 3 of 6 calves exposed to the HoBi-like virus. Diarrhea was observed in 0 of 6 calves exposed to the HoBi-like virus, 2 of 6 calves exposed to the LV BVDV, and 6 of 6 calves exposed to the HV BVDV. The HoBi-like virus was transmitted from acutely infected calves to naïve cohorts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestivirus isolated from water buffalo and cattle in South America, Southeast Asia, and Europe but not from cattle in the United States. Understanding the clinical course of disease caused by HoBi-like pestiviruses will be important for the design of surveillance programs for the United States.

Contributor Notes

The authors thank Patricia Federico and Kathryn McMullen for technical assistance and Harold Ridpath for assistance with statistical analysis.

Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA.

Address correspondence to Dr. Ridpath (julia.ridpath@ars.usda.gov).