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Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis)

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  • 1 Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 2 Department of Molecular Physiology and Pharmacology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111.
  • | 3 Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 4 Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 5 Department of Molecular Physiology and Pharmacology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111.
  • | 6 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics after IV, IM, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Animals—11 healthy parrots.

Procedures—Cohorts of 8 of the 11 birds comprised 3 experimental groups for a crossover study. Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via high-performance liquid chromatography after IV, IM, and oral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg.

Results—Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pharmacokinetic data may provide useful information for use of meloxicam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A mean plasma concentration of 3.5 μg/mL would be expected to provide analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots; however, individual variation may result in some birds having low plasma meloxicam concentrations after IV, IM, or oral administration. After oral administration, meloxicam concentration slowly reached the target plasma concentration, but that concentration was not sustained in most birds.

Abstract

Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics after IV, IM, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Animals—11 healthy parrots.

Procedures—Cohorts of 8 of the 11 birds comprised 3 experimental groups for a crossover study. Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via high-performance liquid chromatography after IV, IM, and oral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg.

Results—Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pharmacokinetic data may provide useful information for use of meloxicam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A mean plasma concentration of 3.5 μg/mL would be expected to provide analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots; however, individual variation may result in some birds having low plasma meloxicam concentrations after IV, IM, or oral administration. After oral administration, meloxicam concentration slowly reached the target plasma concentration, but that concentration was not sustained in most birds.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Molter's present address is William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Dr. Cole's present address is Oklahoma City Zoo, 2000 Remington Pl, Oklahoma City, OK 73111.

Dr. Gagnon's present address is Kaukauna Veterinary Clinic, 625 Hyland Ave, Kaukauna, WI 54130.

Supported in part by the Morris Animal Foundation (grant No. D08ZO-086).

Dr. Court was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health (grant No. R01GM061834).

Presented in abstract form at the 30th Annual Association of Avian Veterinarians Conference, Milwaukee, August 2009.

Address correspondence to Dr. Paul-Murphy (paulmurphy@ucdavis.edu).