• 1. Zacariotti RL, Grego KF, Fernandes W, et al. Semen collection and evaluation in free-ranging Brazilian rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus). Zoo Biol 2007; 26:155160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Molina FC, Bell T, Norbury G, et al. Assisted breeding of skinks or how to teach a lizard old tricks! Herpetol Conserv Biol 2010; 52:311319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. US Fish and Wildlife Service Division of Endangered Species. Threatened and endangered species system species report. 2005. Available at: ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/TESSSpeciesReport. Accessed Aug 25, 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2010.4. 2010. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed Feb 14, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Ross RA, Marzec G. Reproductive husbandry of pythons and boas. Stanford, Calif: Institute for Herpetological Research, 1990.

  • 6. Mattson KJ, De Vries A, McGuire SM, et al. Successful artificial insemination in the corn snake, Elaphe gutatta, using fresh and cooled semen. Zoo Biol 2007; 26:363369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Fitch HS. The snake as a source of living spermatozoa in the laboratory. Turtox News 1961; 39:247.

  • 8. Tein-Shun T, Ming-Chung T. Reproductive cycle of male Chinese green tree vipers, Trimeresurus s. stejnegeri, in Northern Taiwan. J Herpetol 2000; 34:424430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Funk RS. Biology: snakes. In: Mader DR, ed. Reptile medicine and surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1996;3946.

  • 10. Mengden AG, Platz CG, Hubbard R, et al. Semen collection, freezing, and artificial insemination in snakes. In: Murphy JB, ed. Reproductive biology and diseases of captive reptiles. Lawrence, Kan: Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 1980;7178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Samour JH. Recent advances in artificial breeding techniques in birds and reptiles. Int Zoo Yearbook 1986; 24/25:143148.

  • 12. Scheltinga DM, Jamieson BG, Trauth SE, et al Morphology of the spermatozoa of the iguanian lizards Uta stansburiana and Urosaurus ornatus (Squamata, Phrynosomatidae). J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol 2000; 32:261271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Scheltinga DM, Jamieson BGM, Espinoza RE, et al. Descriptions of the mature spermatozoa of the lizards Crotaphytus bicinctores, Gambelia wislizenii (Crotaphytidae), and Anolis carolinensis (Polychrotidae) (Reptilia, Squamata, Iguania). J Morphol 2001; 247:160171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Vieira GH, Colli GR, Bao SN. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the lizard Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Squamata, Iguanidae) and the variability of sperm morphology among iguanian lizards. J Anat 2004; 204:451464.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Oliver S, Jamieson BGM, Scheltinga D. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Squamata. II. Agamidae, Varanidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Boidae (Reptilia). Herpetologica 1996; 52:216241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Jamieson B. Spermatozoal phylogeny of the vertebrata. In: Glagnon C, ed. The male gamete: from basic science to clinical applications. St Louis: Cache River Press, 1999;303331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Teixeira RD, Colli GR, Bao SN. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the lizard Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata, Polychrotidae). J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol 1999; 31:387395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Teixeira RD, Vieira GHC, Colli GR, et al. Ultrastructural study of spermatozoa of the neotropical lizards, Tropidurus semitaeniatus and Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae). Tissue Cell 1999; 31:308317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Ferreira A, Laura IA, Dolder H. Reproductive cycle of male green iguanas, Iguana iguana (Reptilia: Sauria: Iguanidae), in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Braz J Morphol Sci 2002; 19:2328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Denardo D. Reproductive biology. In: Mader DR, ed. Reptile medicine and surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1996;212224.

  • 21. Barten SL. Lizards. In: Mader DR, ed. Reptile medicine and surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1996;4852.

  • 22. Girling S, Raiti P. Urogenital system. In: BSAVA manual of reptiles. 2nd ed. Gloucester, England: British Small Animal Veterinary Association, 2004;261272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Rivera S. Health assessment of the reptilian reproductive tract. J Exotic Pet Med 2008; 17:259266.

  • 24. Tanasanti M, Sujaritthanyatrakul C, Dhanarun K, et al. Electroejaculation and semen evaluation in olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) and hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Thailand, in Proceedings. 4th Int Symp SEASTAR2000 Asian Bio-logging Sci 2009;2932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Shatrakul K, Dhanarun K, Sujaritthanyatrakul C, et al. Semen evaluation in olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), in Proceedings. 46th Kasetsart Univ Annu Conf 2008;301314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Kimskulvech S, Suttiyotin P. Stimulation patterns for erection and ejaculation using electroejaculator in black marsh turtles. Thai J Vet Med 2012; 42:325331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Millar JD, Watson PF. Cryopreservation of gametes and embryos in reptiles and amphibians. In: Watson PF, Holt WV, eds. Cryobanking the genetic resource: wildlife conservation for the future? London: Taylor and Francis, 2001;171177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Quinn H, Blasedel T, Platz CC Jr. Successful artificial insemination in the checkered garter snake (Thamnophis marcianus). Int Zoo Yearbook 1989; 28:177183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Platz CC, Mengden G, Quinn H, et al. Semen collection, evaluation and freezing in the green sea turtle, Galapagos tortoise, and red-eared pond turtle, in Proceedings. Am Assoc Zoo Vet 1980;4753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Gould ICG, Warner H, Martin DE. Rectal probe electro-ejaculation of primates. J Med Primatol 1978; 7:213222.

  • 31. Fahrig B, Mitchell MA, Eilts BE, et al. Characterization and cooled storage of semen from corn snakes (Elaphe guttata). J Zoo Wildl Med 2007; 38:712.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Ax RL, Dally BA, Didion RW, et al. Semen evaluation. In: Hafez B, Hafez ESE, eds. Reproduction in farm animals. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000;365375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Wood F, Platz C, Critchley K, et al. Semen collection by electroejaculation of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas. Br J Herpetol 1982; 6:200202.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Tourmente M, Cardozo GA, Guidobaldi HA, et al. Sperm motility parameters to evaluate the seminal quality of Boa constrictor occidentalis, a threatened snake species. Res Vet Sci 2007; 82:9398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Gist DH, Turner TW, Congdon JD. Chemical and thermal effects on the viability and motility of spermatozoa from the turtle epididymis. J Reprod Fertil 2000; 119:271277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Barth AD, Oko RJ. Defects of the sperm tail. In: Barth AD, Oko RJ, eds. Abnormal morphology of bovine spermatozoa. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1989;214270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Collection and characterization of semen from green iguanas (Iguana iguana)

View More View Less
  • 1 Memphis Zoo and Aquarium, 2000 Prentiss Pl, Memphis, TN 38112.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

Abstract

Objective—To determine an efficient method for the collection of semen samples by means of electroejaculation, characterize spermatozoa quality and quantity, and determine the effect of refrigerated storage on motility of spermatozoa obtained from green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

Animals—18 adult green iguanas.

Procedures—Green iguanas were anesthetized, and semen samples were obtained by means of electroejaculation. Up to 3 series of electrostimulations were performed; the procedure was stopped after a semen sample was obtained. Various semen sample variables were evaluated.

Results—Semen samples were obtained from 16 iguanas; most (n = 10) iguanas produced a semen sample after the second series of electrostimulations. Median semen sample volume was 0.05 mL. Mean spermatozoa concentration was 2 69.0 × 106 spermatozoa/mL. Median percentage of motile spermatozoa was 78%. The only morphological abnormality of spermatozoa was bent tails (mean percentage in a semen sample, 5.7%). Spermatozoa motility decreased significantly during refrigeration (4°C); median percentage motility after 24, 48, and 72 hours of refrigeration was 60%, 33%, and 0%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested electroejaculation can be performed to collect semen samples from green iguanas, characteristics of iguana semen samples are similar to those for semen samples obtained from other reptiles, and motility of iguana spermatozoa decreases during refrigeration within 48 to 72 hours.

Abstract

Objective—To determine an efficient method for the collection of semen samples by means of electroejaculation, characterize spermatozoa quality and quantity, and determine the effect of refrigerated storage on motility of spermatozoa obtained from green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

Animals—18 adult green iguanas.

Procedures—Green iguanas were anesthetized, and semen samples were obtained by means of electroejaculation. Up to 3 series of electrostimulations were performed; the procedure was stopped after a semen sample was obtained. Various semen sample variables were evaluated.

Results—Semen samples were obtained from 16 iguanas; most (n = 10) iguanas produced a semen sample after the second series of electrostimulations. Median semen sample volume was 0.05 mL. Mean spermatozoa concentration was 2 69.0 × 106 spermatozoa/mL. Median percentage of motile spermatozoa was 78%. The only morphological abnormality of spermatozoa was bent tails (mean percentage in a semen sample, 5.7%). Spermatozoa motility decreased significantly during refrigeration (4°C); median percentage motility after 24, 48, and 72 hours of refrigeration was 60%, 33%, and 0%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested electroejaculation can be performed to collect semen samples from green iguanas, characteristics of iguana semen samples are similar to those for semen samples obtained from other reptiles, and motility of iguana spermatozoa decreases during refrigeration within 48 to 72 hours.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Mitchell (mmitch@illinois.edu).

Dr. Zimmerman's present address is Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project, B.P. 115, Musanze, Rwanda.

Supported in part by the Memphis Zoo Conservation Action Network and Fluker Farms.

Presented in part at the 16th Annual Conference of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians, Milwaukee, August 2009.

The authors thank Dr. Brooke Fahrig for consultation regarding sample processing and Dr. Sam Rivera for loan of equipment used in the study.