• 1.

    Hooper LV, Wong MH, Thelin A, et al. Molecular analysis of commensal host-microbial relationships in the intestine. Science 2001; 291:881884.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Suchodolski JS. Companion animals symposium: microbes and gastrointestinal health of dogs and cats. J Anim Sci 2011; 89: 15201530.

  • 3.

    Russell DA, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, et al. Metabolic activities and probiotic potential of bifidobacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 2011; 149: 88105.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Ripamonti B, Agazzi A, Bersani C, et al. Screening of species-specific lactic acid bacteria for veal calves multi-strain probiotic adjuncts. Anaerobe 2011; 17: 97105.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Bird AR, Vuaran M, Crittenden R, et al. Comparative effects of a high-amylose starch and a fructooligosaccharide on fecal bifidobacteria numbers and short-chain fatty acids in pigs fed Bifidobacterium animalis. Dig Dis Sci 2009; 54: 947954.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Newburg DS, Neubauer SH. Carbohydrate in milk: analysis, quantities and significance. In: Jensen RG, ed. Handbook of milk composition. New York: Academic Press Inc, 1995; 273338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Davis LM, Martínez I, Walter J, et al. Barcoded pyrosequencing reveals that consumption of galactooligosaccharides results in a highly specific bifidogenic response in humans. PLoS One 2011; 6:e25200.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Barry KA, Wojcicki BJ, Middelbos IS, et al. Dietary cellulose, fructooligosaccharides, and pectin modify fecal protein catabolites and microbial populations in adult cats. J Anim Sci 2010; 88: 29782987.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Ritchie LE, Burke KF, Garcia-Mazcorro JF, et al. Characterization of fecal microbiota in cats using universal 16S rRNA gene and group-specific primers for Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. Vet Microbiol 2010; 144: 140146.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Marshall-Jones ZV, Baillon MLA, Croft JM, et al. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM13241 as a probiotic in healthy adult cats. Am J Vet Res 2006; 67: 10051012.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Hartemink R, Kok BJ, Weenk GH, et al. Raffinose-Bifidobacterium (RB) agar, a new selective medium for bifidobacteria. J Microbiol Meth 1996; 27: 3343.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Scardovi V. Genus Bifidobacterium. In: Sneath H, Mair N, Sharpe M, et al, eds. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. 9th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1986; 14181434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Kok RG, de Waal A, Schut F, et al. Specific detection and analysis of a probiotic Bifidobacterium strain in infant feces. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996; 62: 36683672.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Massi M, Vitali B, Federici F, et al. Identification method based on PCR combined with automated ribotyping for tracking probiotic Lactobacillus strains colonizing the human gut and vagina. J Appl Microbiol 2004; 96: 777786.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Zanoni S, Pompei A, Cordisco L, et al. Growth kinetics on oligo- and polysaccharides and promising features of three antioxidative potential probiotic strains. J Appl Microbiol 2008; 105: 12661276.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Case LP, Carey DP, Hirakawa DA, et al. Determination of energy requirement of dogs and cats. In: Canine and feline nutrition. 2nd ed. St Louis: Mosby Inc, 2000; 8388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis. 16th ed. Gaithersburg, Md: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2000.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Biagi G, Piva A, Moschini M, et al. Effect of gluconic acid on piglet growth performance, intestinal microflora, and intestinal wall morphology. J Anim Sci 2006; 84: 370378.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Stefanelli C, Carati D, Rossoni C. Separation of N1- and N8-acetylspermidine isomers by reversed-phase column liquid chromatography after derivatization with dansyl chloride. J Chromatogr 1986; 375: 4955.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Zwietering MH, Rombouts FM, van't Riet K. Comparison of definitions of the lag phase and the exponential phase in bacterial growth. J Appl Bacteriol 1992; 72: 139145.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Biagi G, Cipollini I, Grandi M, et al. Influence of some potential prebiotics and fibre-rich foodstuffs on composition and activity of canine intestinal microbiota. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2010; 159: 5058.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Haros M, Carlsson NG, Almgren A, et al. Phytate degradation by human gut isolated Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919 and its probiotic potential. Int J Food Microbiol 2009; 135: 714.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Moubareck C, Lecso M, Pinloche E, et al. Inhibitory impact of bifidobacteria on the transfer of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in the gnotobiotic mouse digestive tract. Appl Environ Microb 2007; 73: 855860.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Kabeir BM, Yazid AM, Stephenie W, et al. Safety evaluation of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 as assessed in BALB/c mice. Lett Appl Microbiol 2007; 46: 3237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Cardelle-Cobas A, Fernández M, Salazar N, et al. Bifidogenic effect and stimulation of short chain fatty acid production in human faecal slurry cultures by oligosaccharides derived from lactose and lactulose. J Dairy Res 2009; 76: 317325.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Strickling JA, Harmon DL, Dawson KA. Evaluation of oligosaccharide addition to dog diets: influences on nutrient digestion and microbial populations. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2000; 86: 205219.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Hesta M, Hoornaer E, Verlinden A, et al. The effect of oligofructose on urea metabolism and faecal odour components in cats. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 2005; 89: 208214.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Kanakupt K, Vester Boler BM, Dunsford BR, et al. Effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides, individually and in combination, on nutrient digestibility, fecal fermentative metabolite concentrations, and large bowel microbial ecology of healthy adults cats. J Anim Sci 2011; 89: 13761384.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Blachier F, Mariotti F, Huneau JF, et al. Effects of amino acid-derived luminal metabolites on the colonic epithelium and physiopathological consequences. Amino Acids 2007; 33: 547562.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Hopkins MJ, Macfarlane GT. Nondigestible oligosaccharides enhance bacterial colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile in vitro. Appl Envir Microb 2003; 69: 19201927.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Ogué-Bon E, Khoo C, McCartney AL, et al. In vitro effects of synbiotic fermentation on the canine faecal microbiota. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2010; 73: 587600.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Belenguer A, Duncan SH, Calder AG, et al. Two routes of metabolic cross-feeding between Bifidobacterium adolescentis and butyrate-producing anaerobes from the human gut. Appl Environ Microb 2006; 72: 35933599.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Stevens CE, Hume ID. Contributions of microbes in vertebrate gastrointestinal tract to production and conservation of nutrients. Physiol Rev 1998; 78: 393427.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Brigidi P, Vitali B, Swennen E, et al. Effects of probiotic administration upon the composition and enzymatic activity of human fecal microbiota in patients with irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhea. Res Microbiol 2001; 152: 735741.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Baillon ML, Marshall-Jones ZV, Butterwick RF. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain DSM13241 in healthy adult dogs. Am J Vet Res 2004; 65: 338343.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Vanhoutte T, De Preter V, De Brandt E, et al. Molecular monitoring of the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects during administration of lactulose and Saccharomyces boulardii. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006; 72: 59905997.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Garcia-Mazcorro JF, Lanerie DJ, Dowd SE, et al. Effect of a multi-species synbiotic formulation on fecal bacterial microbiota of healthy cats and dogs as evaluated by pyrosequencing. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2011; 78: 542554.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Effect of feeding a selected combination of galacto-oligosaccharides and a strain of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum on the intestinal microbiota of cats

Giacomo BiagiDepartment of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, 40064 Ozzano Emilia, Italy.

Search for other papers by Giacomo Biagi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Irene CipolliniDepartment of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, 40064 Ozzano Emilia, Italy.

Search for other papers by Irene Cipollini in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Alessio BonaldoDepartment of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, 40064 Ozzano Emilia, Italy.

Search for other papers by Alessio Bonaldo in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Monica GrandiDepartment of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, 40064 Ozzano Emilia, Italy.

Search for other papers by Monica Grandi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Anna PompeiDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Search for other papers by Anna Pompei in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Claudio StefanelliDepartment of Biochemistry, University of Bologna, 40100 Bologna, Italy.

Search for other papers by Claudio Stefanelli in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
, and
Giuliano ZaghiniDepartment of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, 40064 Ozzano Emilia, Italy.

Search for other papers by Giuliano Zaghini in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the growth kinetics of a strain of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (BP) on 4 oligo- or polysaccharides and the effect of feeding a selected probiotic-prebiotic combination on intestinal microbiota in cats.

Animals—10 healthy adult cats.

Procedures—Growth kinetics of a strain of cat-origin BP (BP-B82) on fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), lactitol, or pectins was determined, and the combination of GOS and BP-B82 was selected. Cats received supplemental once-daily feeding of 1% GOS–BP-B82 (1010 CFUs/d) for 15 days; fecal samples were collected for analysis the day before (day 0) and 1 and 10 days after the feeding period (day 16 and 25, respectively).

Results—Compared with the prefeeding value, mean fecal ammonia concentration was significantly lower on days 16 and 25 (288 and 281 μmol/g of fecal dry matter [fDM], respectively, vs 353 μmol/g of fDM); fecal acetic acid concentration was higher on day 16 (171 μmol/g of fDM vs 132 μmol/g of fDM). On day 16, fecal concentrations of lactic, n-valeric, and isovaleric acids (3.61, 1.52, and 3.55 μmol/g of fDM, respectively) were significantly lower than on days 0 (5.08, 18.4, and 6.48 μmol/g of fDM, respectively) and 25 (4.24, 17.3, and 6.17 μmol/g of fDM, respectively). A significant increase in fecal bifidobacteria content was observed on days 16 and 25 (7.98 and 7.52 log10 CFUs/g of fDM, respectively), compared with the prefeeding value (5.63 log10 CFUs/g of fDM).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feeding 1% GOS–BP-B82 combination had some positive effects on the intestinal microbiota in cats

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the growth kinetics of a strain of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (BP) on 4 oligo- or polysaccharides and the effect of feeding a selected probiotic-prebiotic combination on intestinal microbiota in cats.

Animals—10 healthy adult cats.

Procedures—Growth kinetics of a strain of cat-origin BP (BP-B82) on fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), lactitol, or pectins was determined, and the combination of GOS and BP-B82 was selected. Cats received supplemental once-daily feeding of 1% GOS–BP-B82 (1010 CFUs/d) for 15 days; fecal samples were collected for analysis the day before (day 0) and 1 and 10 days after the feeding period (day 16 and 25, respectively).

Results—Compared with the prefeeding value, mean fecal ammonia concentration was significantly lower on days 16 and 25 (288 and 281 μmol/g of fecal dry matter [fDM], respectively, vs 353 μmol/g of fDM); fecal acetic acid concentration was higher on day 16 (171 μmol/g of fDM vs 132 μmol/g of fDM). On day 16, fecal concentrations of lactic, n-valeric, and isovaleric acids (3.61, 1.52, and 3.55 μmol/g of fDM, respectively) were significantly lower than on days 0 (5.08, 18.4, and 6.48 μmol/g of fDM, respectively) and 25 (4.24, 17.3, and 6.17 μmol/g of fDM, respectively). A significant increase in fecal bifidobacteria content was observed on days 16 and 25 (7.98 and 7.52 log10 CFUs/g of fDM, respectively), compared with the prefeeding value (5.63 log10 CFUs/g of fDM).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feeding 1% GOS–BP-B82 combination had some positive effects on the intestinal microbiota in cats

Contributor Notes

Commercial diets used in the study were provided by Agras Delic S.p.A.

Presented in part at the American Society of Animal Science Congress, New Orleans, July 2011.

Address correspondence to Dr. Biagi (giacomo.biagi@unibo.it).