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Effects of reduction of inspired oxygen fraction or application of positive end-expiratory pressure after an alveolar recruitment maneuver on respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and lung aeration in dogs during anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade

Valentina De MonteDipartimento dell'Emergenza e dei Trapianti di Organi, Sezione di Chirurgia Veterinaria, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Bari, Aldo Moro, Valenzano, (Bari), Italy.

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Salvatore GrassoDipartimento dell'Emergenza e dei Trapianti di Organi, Sezione di Anestesia e Terapia Intensiva, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi di Bari, Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

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Carmelinda De MarzoDipartimento dell'Emergenza e dei Trapianti di Organi, Sezione di Chirurgia Veterinaria, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Bari, Aldo Moro, Valenzano, (Bari), Italy.

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Antonio CrovaceDipartimento dell'Emergenza e dei Trapianti di Organi, Sezione di Chirurgia Veterinaria, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Bari, Aldo Moro, Valenzano, (Bari), Italy.

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Francesco StaffieriDipartimento dell'Emergenza e dei Trapianti di Organi, Sezione di Chirurgia Veterinaria, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Bari, Aldo Moro, Valenzano, (Bari), Italy.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of reduction of inspired oxygen fraction (Fio2) or application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) after an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) in minimizing anesthesia-induced atelectasis in dogs.

Animals—30 healthy female dogs.

Procedures—During anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade, dogs were mechanically ventilated under baseline conditions (tidal volume, 12 mL/kg; inspiratory-to-expiratory ratio, 1:2; Fio2, 1; and zero end-expiratory pressure [ZEEP]). After 40 minutes, lungs were inflated (airway pressure, 40 cm H2O) for 20 seconds. Dogs were then exposed to baseline conditions (ZEEP100 group), baseline conditions with Fio2 reduced to 0.4 (ZEEP40 group), or baseline conditions with PEEP at 5 cm H2O (PEEP100 group; 10 dogs/group). For each dog, arterial blood gas variables and respiratory system mechanics were evaluated and CT scans of the thorax were obtained before and at 5 (T5) and 30 (T30) minutes after the ARM.

Results—Compared with pre-ARM findings, atelectasis decreased and Pao2:Fio2 ratio increased at T5 in all groups. At T30, atelectasis and oxygenation returned to pre-ARM findings in the ZEEP100 group but remained similar to T5 findings in the other groups. At T5 and T30, lung static compliance in the PEEP100 group was higher than values in the other groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Application of airway pressure of 40 cm H2O for 20 seconds followed by Fio2 reduction to 0.4 or ventilation with PEEP (5 cm H2O) was effective in diminishing anesthesia-induced atelectasis and maintaining lung function in dogs, compared with the effects of mechanical ventilation providing an Fio2 of 1.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of reduction of inspired oxygen fraction (Fio2) or application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) after an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) in minimizing anesthesia-induced atelectasis in dogs.

Animals—30 healthy female dogs.

Procedures—During anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade, dogs were mechanically ventilated under baseline conditions (tidal volume, 12 mL/kg; inspiratory-to-expiratory ratio, 1:2; Fio2, 1; and zero end-expiratory pressure [ZEEP]). After 40 minutes, lungs were inflated (airway pressure, 40 cm H2O) for 20 seconds. Dogs were then exposed to baseline conditions (ZEEP100 group), baseline conditions with Fio2 reduced to 0.4 (ZEEP40 group), or baseline conditions with PEEP at 5 cm H2O (PEEP100 group; 10 dogs/group). For each dog, arterial blood gas variables and respiratory system mechanics were evaluated and CT scans of the thorax were obtained before and at 5 (T5) and 30 (T30) minutes after the ARM.

Results—Compared with pre-ARM findings, atelectasis decreased and Pao2:Fio2 ratio increased at T5 in all groups. At T30, atelectasis and oxygenation returned to pre-ARM findings in the ZEEP100 group but remained similar to T5 findings in the other groups. At T5 and T30, lung static compliance in the PEEP100 group was higher than values in the other groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Application of airway pressure of 40 cm H2O for 20 seconds followed by Fio2 reduction to 0.4 or ventilation with PEEP (5 cm H2O) was effective in diminishing anesthesia-induced atelectasis and maintaining lung function in dogs, compared with the effects of mechanical ventilation providing an Fio2 of 1.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Staffieri (f.staffieri@veterinaria.uniba.it).