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Use of a real-time three-dimensional motion tracking system for measurement of intrafractional motion of the thoracic wall in dogs

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  • 1 Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.
  • | 2 Western College of Veterinary Medicine, and the College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.
  • | 3 Western College of Veterinary Medicine, and the College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.
  • | 4 Saskatoon Cancer Centre, 20 Campus Dr, Saskatoon, SK S7N 4H4, Canada.
  • | 5 Large Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.

Abstract

Objective—To measure respiratory motion of the thoracic wall region in dogs using a real-time motion tracking system and compare the amount of respiratory motion between dogs positioned with and without a vacuum-formable cushion.

Animals—8 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs (median weight, 23 kg).

Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized and positioned in sternal and dorsal recumbency with and without a vacuum-formable cushion. Three-dimensional movement of anatomic landmarks was measured with a real-time motion capture system that tracked the locations of infrared light–emitting diodes attached externally to the dorsal or ventral and lateral aspects of the thoracic wall.

Results—Dogs positioned in sternal recumbency had significantly less cranial-to-caudal and left-to-right respiratory motion at the lateral aspect of the thoracic wall, compared with dogs positioned in dorsal recumbency, whether or not a cushion was used. For dogs treated in sternal recumbency, use of a cushion significantly increased the peak displacement vector (overall movement in 3-D space) for 3 of 4 marker locations on the dorsal thoracic wall. As respiratory rate increased, respiratory motion at the lateral and ventral aspects of the thoracic wall decreased when data for all dogs in dorsal recumbency were evaluated together.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Associations between respiratory rate and respiratory motion suggested that the use of rapid, shallow ventilation may be beneficial for dogs undergoing highly conformal radiation treatment. These results provide a basis for further research on respiratory motion in anesthetized dogs.

Abstract

Objective—To measure respiratory motion of the thoracic wall region in dogs using a real-time motion tracking system and compare the amount of respiratory motion between dogs positioned with and without a vacuum-formable cushion.

Animals—8 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs (median weight, 23 kg).

Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized and positioned in sternal and dorsal recumbency with and without a vacuum-formable cushion. Three-dimensional movement of anatomic landmarks was measured with a real-time motion capture system that tracked the locations of infrared light–emitting diodes attached externally to the dorsal or ventral and lateral aspects of the thoracic wall.

Results—Dogs positioned in sternal recumbency had significantly less cranial-to-caudal and left-to-right respiratory motion at the lateral aspect of the thoracic wall, compared with dogs positioned in dorsal recumbency, whether or not a cushion was used. For dogs treated in sternal recumbency, use of a cushion significantly increased the peak displacement vector (overall movement in 3-D space) for 3 of 4 marker locations on the dorsal thoracic wall. As respiratory rate increased, respiratory motion at the lateral and ventral aspects of the thoracic wall decreased when data for all dogs in dorsal recumbency were evaluated together.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Associations between respiratory rate and respiratory motion suggested that the use of rapid, shallow ventilation may be beneficial for dogs undergoing highly conformal radiation treatment. These results provide a basis for further research on respiratory motion in anesthetized dogs.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Sidhu's present address is Centre for the North, British Columbia Cancer Agency, 1215 Lethbridge St, Prince George, BC V2M 7E9, Canada.

Supported by the Companion Animal Health Fund, Western College of Veterinary Medicine.

Address correspondence to Dr. Mayer (monique.mayer@usask.ca).