• 1.

    Janssens LAAJanssens GHRR. Bilateral flank OVE in the dog—surgical technique and sequelae in 72 animals. J Small Anim Pract 1991; 32:249252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Okkens ACVandergaag IBiewenga WJ, et al. Urological complications following OHE in dogs. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 1981; 106:11891198.

  • 3.

    Okkens ACKooistra HSNickel RF. Comparison of long-term effects of OVE versus OHE in bitches. J Reprod Fertil Suppl1997;(51):227231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    van Goethem BSchaefers-Okkens AKirpensteijn J. Making a rational choice between OVE and OHE in the dog: a discussion of the benefits of either technique. Vet Surg 2006; 35:136143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Rosendaal FR. Venous thrombosis: a multicausal disease. Lancet 1999; 353:11671173.

  • 6.

    Feige KKastne SBRDempfle CE, et al. Changes in coagulation and markers of fibrinolysis in horses undergoing colic surgery. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2003; 50:3036.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Palsgaard-Van Lue AStrom HLee MH, et al. Cellular, hemostatic, and inflammatory variables of the surgical stress response in pigs undergoing partial pericardectomy via open thoracotomy or thoracoscopy. Surg Endosc 2007; 21:785792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Liska WDPoteet BA. Pulmonary embolism associated with canine total hip replacement. Vet Surg 2003; 32:178186.

  • 9.

    Burrow RBatchelor DCripps P. Complications observed during and after OHE of 142 bitches at a veterinary teaching hospital. Vet Rec 2005; 157:829833.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Pollari FLBonnett BN. Evaluation of postoperative complications following elective surgeries of dogs and cats at private practices using computer records. Can Vet J 1996; 37:672678.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Kambayashi JSakon MYokota M, et al. Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during surgery, analyzed by molecular markers. Thromb Res 1990; 60:157167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Lanevschi AKramer JWGreene SA, et al. Fibrinolytic activity in dogs after surgically induced trauma. Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:11371140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Seyfer AESeaber AVDombrose FA, et al. Coagulation changes in elective surgery and trauma. Ann Surg 1981; 193:210213.

  • 14.

    Siemens HJGBrueckner SHagelberg S, et al. Course of molecular hemostatic markers during and after different surgical procedures. J Clin Anesth 1999; 11:622629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Millis DLHauptman JGRichter M. Preoperative and postoperative hemostatic profiles of dogs undergoing OHE. Cornell Vet 1992; 82:465470.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Donahue SMOtto CM. TEG: a tool for measuring hypercoagulability, hypocoagulability, and fibrinolysis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2005; 15:916.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Wiinberg BJensen ALKjelgaard-Hansen M, et al. Study on biological variation of haemostatic variables in clinically healthy dogs. Vet J 2007; 174:6268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Wiinberg BJensen ALJohansson PI, et al. Thromboelastographic evaluation of hemostatic function in dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation. J Vet Intern Med 2008; 22:357365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Peeters MKirpensteijn J. Comparison of surgical variables and short-term postoperative complications in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011; 238:189194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    American Society of Anesthesiologists. New classification of physical status. Anesthesiology 1963; 4:111.

  • 21.

    Laflamme DP. Body condition scoring and weight maintenance, in Proceedings. North Am Vet Conf 1993;16–21:290291.

  • 22.

    Holton LReid JScott EM, et al. Development of a behaviour-based scale to measure acute pain in dogs. Vet Rec 2001; 148:525531.

  • 23.

    Wiinberg BJensen ALRojkjaer R, et al. Validation of human recombinant tissue factor-activated TEG on citrated whole blood from clinically healthy dogs. Vet Clin Pathol 2005; 34:389393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Kristensen ATWiinberg BJessen LR, et al. Evaluation of human recombinant tissue factor-activated TEG in 49 dogs with neoplasia. J Vet Intern Med 2008; 22:140147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Dohoo IMartin WStryhn H. Mixed models for continuous data. In: Veterinary epidemiologic research. 2nd ed. Charlottetown, PE, Canada: VER Inc, 2009:553565.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Freyburger GDubreuil MAudebert A, et al. Changes in haemostasis after laparoscopic surgery in gynaecology: contribution of the thrombin generation test. Haemostasis 2001; 31:3241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Ceron JJEckersall PDMartynez-Subiela S. Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats: current knowledge and future perspectives. Vet Clin Pathol 2005; 34:8599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Bauer KA. Activation markers of coagulation. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 1999; 12:387406.

  • 29.

    Mischke R. Acute haemostatic changes in accidentally traumatised dogs. Vet J 2005; 169:6064.

  • 30.

    Singer IOPringle STait RC, et al. Hysterectomy techniques and their effect on the blood markers of thrombogenicity. Gynaecol Endosc 2000; 9:379383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Stokol T. Plasma D-dimer for the diagnosis of thromboembolic disorders in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2003; 33:14191435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Bongard OWicky JPeter R, et al. D-dimer plasma measurement in patients undergoing major hip-surgery: use in the prediction and diagnosis of postoperative proximal vein-thrombosis. Thromb Res 1994; 74:487493.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Bounameaux HDemoerloose PPerrier A, et al. Plasma measurement of D-dimer as diagnostic-aid in suspected venous thromboembolism: an overview. Thromb Haemost 1994; 71:16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Lip GYHLowe GDO. Fibrin D-dimer: a useful clinical marker of thrombogenesis. Clin Sci 1995; 89:205214.

  • 35.

    Nelson OLAndreasen C. The utility of plasma D-dimer to identify thromboembolic disease in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2003; 17:830834.

  • 36.

    Baxter GMParks AHPrasse KW. Effects of exploratory laparotomy on plasma and peritoneal coagulation fibrinolysis in horses. Am J Vet Res 1991; 52:11211127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Levi Mvan der Poll TBuller HR. Bidirectional relation between inflammation and coagulation. Circulation 2004; 109:26982704.

  • 38.

    Lang IMMarsh JJKonopka RG, et al. Factors contributing to increased vascular fibrinolytic activity in mongrel dogs. Circulation 1993; 87:19902000.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Lopez YParamo JAValenti JR, et al. Hemostatic markers in surgery: a different fibrinolytic activity may be of pathophysiological significance in orthopedic versus abdominal surgery. Int J Clin Lab Res 1997; 27:233237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Prisco DDe Gaudio ARCarla R, et al. Videolaparoscopic cholecystectomy induces a hemostasis activation of lower grade than does open surgery. Surg Endosc 2000; 14:170174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Devitt CMCox REHailey JJ. Duration, complications, stress, and pain of open OHE versus a simple method of laparoscopic-assisted OHE in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 227:921927.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Wirtz PHEhlert UEmini L, et al. The role of stress hormones in the relationship between resting blood pressure and coagulation activity. J Hypertens 2006; 24:24092416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Zgraggen LFischer JEMischler K, et al. Relationship between hemoconcentration and blood coagulation responses to acute mental stress. Thromb Res 2005; 115:175183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Hickford FHBarr SCErb HN. Effect of carprofen on hemostatic variables in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2001; 62:16421646.

  • 45.

    Günzel-Apel ARHayer MMischke R, et al. Dynamics of haemostasis during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy in bitches. J Reprod Fertil Suppl1997;(51):185193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Hemostatic response to surgical neutering via ovariectomy and ovariohysterectomy in dogs

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, 0033 Oslo, Norway.
  • | 2 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  • | 4 Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, 0033 Oslo, Norway.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the hemostatic response to surgery and compare the response for ovariohysterectomy with that for ovariectomy and to evaluate the usefulness of thromboelastography on plasma samples.

Animals—42 female dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were assigned to undergo ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy. Blood samples were collected immediately before and 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery and stored at −80°C for subsequent analysis. Plasma samples were subjected to thromboelastography after thawing. In addition, coagulation variables were measured, including concentrations of von Willebrand factor antigen, fibrinogen, antithrombin, and protein C; activity of factor VIII; activated partial thromboplastin time; prothrombin time; and thrombin time. The fibrinolytic response was assessed via concentrations of D-dimer, plasminogen, and α-2-antiplasmin (plasmin inhibitor).

Results—Substantial hemostatic and fibrinolytic activation was evident after surgery in both groups, as characterized by significantly increased global clot strength and an overall hypercoagulable state at 4 hours after surgery in addition to decreases in von Willebrand factor antigen and factor VIII concentrations and shortened prothrombin and thrombin times. The dogs also typically had activation of the fibrinolytic system, as evidenced by increased postoperative concentrations of D-dimer, plasminogen, and plasmin inhibitor. Differences between the 2 groups could not be detected for any variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Elective surgery with limited tissue trauma induced hemostatic activation in dogs, which led to hypercoagulability after surgery. A difference between the ovariohysterectomy and ovariectomy groups was not detected. Thromboelastography can be used on plasma samples and may be useful for evaluating patterns over time.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the University of Utrecht and the Research and Ethics Committee at the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science.

None of the authors have financial or personal relationships that could inappropriately influence or bias the content of this manuscript.

Address correspondence to Dr. Moldal (elena.moldal@nvh.no).