• 1. Haskins SC. Monitoring the anesthetized patients. In: Thurmon JC, Tranquilli WJ, Benson GJ, eds. Lumb and Jones' veterinary anesthesia. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1996;409499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Mazzaferro E, Wagner A. Hypotension during anesthesia in dog and cats: recognition, causes and treatment. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 2001; 23:728736.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Steffey EP. Inhalation anesthetics. In: Thurmon JC, Tranquilli WJ, Benson GJ, eds. Lumb and Jones' veterinary anesthesia. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1996;297329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Adams HR. Inhalation anesthetics. In: Steffey EP, ed. Veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1995;184205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Guyton AC. Dominant role of the kidney in the long-term regulation of arterial pressure and in hypertension: the integrated system for pressure control. In: Guyton AC, Hall JE, eds. Textbook of medical physiology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2000;216231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. King AS, McLelland J. Cardiovascular system. In: Birds—their structure and function. 2nd ed. East Sussex, England: Bailliere Tindall, 1984;214228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Smith FM, West NH, Jones DR. The cardiovascular system. In: Whittow CG, ed. Sturkies avian physiology. 5th ed. San Diego: Academic Press Inc, 1994;141223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Lumeil JT, Ritchie BW. Cardiology. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GE, eds. Avian medicine: principles and application. 2nd ed. Lake Worth, Fla: Wingers Publishing Inc, 1994;695711.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Büssow H. The wall structure of large arteries in birds. Investigations by light- and electron microscopy [in German]. Z Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat 1973; 142:263288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Zehnder AM, Hawkins M, Pascoe P, et al. Evaluation of indirect blood pressure monitoring in awake and anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis): effect of cuff size, cuff placement, and monitoring equipment. Vet Anaesth Analg 2009; 36:464479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Hawkins MG, Wright BD, Pascoe PJ, et al. Pharmacokinetics and anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of propofol in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Am J Vet Res 2003; 64:677683.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Pettifer GR, Cornick-Seahorn J, Smith JA, et al. The comparative cardiopulmonary effects of spontaneous and controlled ventilation by using the Hallowell EMC Anesthesia WorkStation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). J Avian Med Surg 2002; 16:268276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Touzot-Jourde G, Hernandez-Divers SJ, Trim CM. Cardiopulmonary effects of controlled versus spontaneous ventilation in pigeons anesthetized for coelioscopy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 227:14241428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Naganobu K, Fujisawa Y, Ohde H, et al. Determination of the minimum anesthetic concentration and cardiovascular dose response for sevoflurane in chickens during controlled ventilation. Vet Surg 2000; 29:102105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Ludders JW. Anesthesia for patients with dehydration/hypovolemia. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1992; 22:495496.

  • 16. Moss J, Renz CL. The automatic nervous system. In: Miller RD, ed. Anesthesia. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2000;523577.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Rosati M, Dyson DH, Sinclair MD, et al. Response of hypotensive dogs to dopamine hydrochloride and dobutamine hydrochloride during deep isoflurane anesthesia. Am J Vet Res 2007; 68:483494.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Robie NW, Goldberg LI. Comparative systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of dopamine and dobutamine. Am Heart J 1975; 90:340345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Chen HC, Sinclair MD, Dyson DH. Use of ephedrine and dopamine in dogs for the management of hypotension in routine clinical cases under isoflurane. Vet Anaesth Analg 2007; 34:301311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Abdul-Rasool IH, Chamberlain JH, Swan PC, et al. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic effects of dopamine and dobutamine infusions in dogs. Crit Care Med 1987; 15:10441050.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Stoelting RK. Sympathomimetics. In: Pharmacology and physiology in anesthetic practice. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999;259276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Bednarski RM, Muir WW. Arrhythmogenicity of dopamine, dobutamine, and epinephrine in thiamylal-halothane anesthetized dogs. Am J Vet Res 1983; 44:23412343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Bolton TB, Bowman WC. Adrenoreceptors in the cardiovascular system of the domestic fowl. Eur J Pharmacol 1969; 5:121132.

  • 24. Seeler DC. Fluid, electrolyte, and blood component therapy. In: Thurmon JC, Tranquilli WJ, Benson GJ, eds. Lumb and Jones' veterinary anesthesia. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1996;185201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Tas PW, Sobetael C, Roewer N. The volatile anesthetic isoflurane inhibits the histamine-induced Ca2+ influx in primary human endothelial cells. Anesth Analg 2003; 97:430435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Pagel PS, Kampine JP, Schmeling WT, et al. Comparison of the systemic and coronary hemodynamic actions of desflurane, isoflurane, halothane and enflurane in the chronically instrumented dog. Anesthesiology 1991; 74:539551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Malan TP, DiNardo JA, Isner RJ, et al. Cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane compared with those of isoflurane in volunteers. Anesthesiology 1995; 83:918928.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Eger EI II. Isoflurane: a review. Anesthesiology 1981; 55:559576.

  • 29. Steffey EP & Howland D Jr. Isoflurane potency in the dog and cat. Am J Vet Res 1977; 38:18331836.

  • 30. Acierno MJ, da Cunha A, Smith J, et al. Agreement between direct and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained from anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 233:15871590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Degoute CS. Controlled hypotension: a guide to drug choice. Drugs 2007; 67:10531076.

  • 32. MacGregor DA, Smith TE, Prielipp RC, et al. Pharmacokinetics of dopamine in healthy male subjects. Anesthesiology 2000; 92:338346.

  • 33. Forman MF, Wideman RF Jr. Renal response of normal and pre-ascitic broilers to systemic hypotension induced by unilateral pulmonary artery occlusion. Poult Sci 1999; 78:17731785.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Joyner PH, Jones MP, Ward D, et al. Induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane in bald eagles. Am J Vet Res 2008; 69:1322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Ludders JW, Rode J, Mitchell GS. Isoflurane anesthesia in sandhill cranes (Grus Canadensis): minimal anesthetic concentration and cardiopulmonary dose-response during spontaneous and controlled breathing. Anesth Analg 1989; 68:511516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Goelz MF, Hahn AW, Kelley ST. Effects of halothane and isoflurane on mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate in adult Pekin ducks. Am J Vet Res 1990; 51:458460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Pascoe PJ, Ilkiw JE, Pypendop BH. Effects of increasing infusion rates of dopamine, dobutamine, epinephrine, and phenylephrine in healthy anesthetized cats. Am J Vet Res 2006; 67:14911499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Vincent CJ, Hawley AT, Rozanski EA, et al. Cardiopulmonary effects of dobutamine and norepinephrine infusion in healthy anesthetized alpacas. Am J Vet Res 2009; 70:12361242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Swanson CR, Muir WW III, Bednarski RM, et al. Hemodynamic responses in halothane-anesthetized horses given infusions of dopamine or dobutamine. Am J Vet Res 1985; 46:365370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Vatner SF, McRitchie RJ, Braunwald E. Effects of dobutamine on the left ventricular performance, coronary dynamics, and distribution of cardiac output in conscious dogs. J Clin Invest 1974; 53:12651273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Effects of dopamine and dobutamine on isoflurane-induced hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis)

View More View Less
  • 1 Zoological Medicine Service, Department of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 2 Anesthesia Service, Department of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 3 Zoological Medicine Service, Department of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 4 Anesthesia Service, Department of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 5 Zoological Medicine Service, Department of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
  • | 6 Zoological Medicine Service, Department of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

Abstract

Objective—To assess the effects of dopamine and dobutamine on the blood pressure of isoflurane-anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Animals—8 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

Procedures—A randomized crossover study was conducted. Each bird was anesthetized (anesthesia maintained by administration of 2.5% isoflurane in oxygen) and received 3 doses of each drug during a treatment period of 20 min/dose. Treatments were constant rate infusions (CRIs) of dobutamine (5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min) and dopamine (5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min). Direct systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure measurements, heart rate, esophageal temperature, and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 were recorded throughout the treatment periods.

Results—Mean ± SD of the systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures at time 0 (initiation of a CRI) were 132.9 ± 22.1 mm Hg, 116.9 ± 20.5 mm Hg, and 101.9 ± 22.0 mm Hg, respectively. Dopamine resulted in significantly higher values than did dobutamine for the measured variables, except for end-tidal partial pressure of CO2. Post hoc multiple comparisons revealed that the changes in arterial blood pressure were significantly different 4 to 7 minutes after initiation of a CRI. Overall, dopamine at rates of 7 and 10 μg/kg/min and dobutamine at a rate of 15 μg/kg/min caused the greatest increases in arterial blood pressure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dobutamine CRI at 5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min and dopamine CRI at 5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min may be useful in correcting severe hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots caused by anesthesia maintained with 2.5% isoflurane.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Schnellbacher's present address is College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Supported by the South Alabama Bird Club, the Gulf South Bird Club, and the Kaytee Avian Foundation.

The authors thank Michael T. Kearney for assistance with the experimental design and statistical analysis.

Address correspondence to Dr. Schnellbacher (schnell@uga.edu).