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Flow cytometric evaluation of peripheral blood and bone marrow and fine-needle aspirate samples from multiple sites in dogs with multicentric lymphoma

Alexa E. Joetzke Dr med vet1, Nina Eberle Dr med vet2, Ingo Nolte Dr habil, Dr med vet3, Reinhard Mischke Dr habil, Dr med vet4, and Daniela Simon Dr habil, Dr med vet5
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  • 1 Small Animal Hospital, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.
  • | 2 Small Animal Hospital, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.
  • | 3 Small Animal Hospital, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.
  • | 4 Small Animal Hospital, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.
  • | 5 Small Animal Hospital, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the extent of disease in dogs with lymphoma can be assessed via flow cytometry and to evaluate the suitability of fine-needle aspirates from the liver and spleen of dogs for flow cytometric examination.

Animals—44 dogs with multicentric B-cell (n = 35) or T-cell lymphoma (9) and 5 healthy control dogs.

Procedures—Peripheral blood and bone marrow samples and fine-needle aspirates of lymph node, liver, and spleen were examined via flow cytometry. Logarithmically transformed T-cell–to–B-cell percentage ratio (log[T:B]) values were calculated. Thresholds defined by use of log(T:B) values of samples from control dogs were used to determine extranodal lymphoma involvement in lymphoma-affected dogs; results were compared with cytologic findings.

Results—12 of 245 (5%) samples (9 liver, 1 spleen, and 2 bone marrow) had insufficient cellularity for flow cytometric evaluation. Mean log(T:B) values of samples from dogs with B-cell lymphoma were significantly lower than those of samples from the same site in dogs with T-cell lymphoma and in control dogs. In dogs with T-cell lymphoma, the log(T:B) of lymph node, bone marrow, and spleen samples was significantly higher than in control dogs. Of 165 samples assessed for extranodal lymphoma involvement, 116 (70%) tested positive via flow cytometric analysis; results agreed with cytologic findings in 133 of 161 (83%) samples evaluated via both methods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that flow cytometry may aid in detection of extranodal lymphoma involvement in dogs, but further research is needed. Most fine-needle aspirates of liver and spleen were suitable for flow cytometric evaluation.

Contributor Notes

Alexa E. Joetzke was sponsored by the German National Academic Foundation.

Presented as a poster at the 1. WORLDvetCANCER, First Joint Meeting of The European Society of Veterinary Oncology and the Veterinary Cancer Society, Copenhagen, February–March 2008; and in abstract form at the 18th Annual Congress of the European College of Veterinary Internal Medicine—Companion Animals, Ghent, Belgium, September 2008; and at the European Society of Veterinary Oncology Spring Congress, Torino, Italy, March 2010.

The authors thank H. J. Schuberth for technical advice regarding flow cytometry.

Address correspondence to Dr. Joetzke (alexa.joetzke@tiho-hannover.de).