• 1.

    Edwards A. Respiratory diseases of feedlot cattle in central USA. Bovine Pract 1996; 30(5):57.

  • 2.

    Smith RA. Impact of disease on feedlot performance: a review. J Anim Sci 1998; 76:272274.

  • 3.

    Smith RA, Stokka GL, Radostits O, et al. Health and production management in beef feedlots. In: Radostits O, ed. Herd health: food animal production medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2001;592595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Lechtenberg KF, Smith RA, Stokka GL. Feedlot health and management. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1998; 14:177197.

  • 5.

    White BJ, Renter DG. Bayesian estimation of the performance of using clinical observations and harvest lung lesions for diagnosing bovine respiratory disease in post-weaned beef calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 2009; 21:446453.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Weary DM, Huzzey JM, von Keyserlingk MAG. Board-invited review: using behavior to predict and identify ill health in animals. J Anim Sci 2009; 87:770777.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Gagea MI, Bateman KG, Shanahan RA, et al. Naturally occurring Mycoplasma bovis–associated pneumonia and polyarthritis in feedlot beef calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 2006; 18:2940.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Nicholas RA, Ayling RD. Mycoplasma bovis: disease, diagnosis, and control. Res Vet Sci 2003; 74:105112.

  • 9.

    Caswell JL & Archambault M. Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle. Anim Health Res Rev 2008; 8:161186.

  • 10.

    White B, Hanzlicek G, Sanderson MW, et al. Mollicutes species and Mycoplasma bovis prevalence and association with health outcomes in beef feeder calves at arrival and initial treatment for bovine respiratory disease. Can Vet J 2010; 51:10161018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Hanzlicek GA, White BJ, Renter DG, et al. Associations between the prevalence of Mollicutes and Mycoplasma bovis and health and performance in stocker calves. Vet Rec 2011; 168:21.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Apley M. Bovine respiratory disease: pathogenesis, clinical signs, and treatment in lightweight calves. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2006; 22:399411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Buhman MJ, Perino LJ, Galyean ML, et al. Association between changes in eating and drinking behaviors and respiratory tract disease in newly arrived calves at a feedlot. Am J Vet Res 2000; 61:11631168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Sowell BF, Branine ME, Bowman JG, et al. Feeding and watering behavior of healthy and morbid steers in a commercial feedlot. J Anim Sci 1999; 77:11051112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Borderas TF, de Passille AM & Rushen J. Behavior of dairy calves after a low dose of bacterial endotoxin. J Anim Sci 2008; 86:29202927.

  • 16.

    Fajt VR, Apley MD, Roth JA, et al. The effects of danofloxacin and tilmicosin on neutrophil function and lung consolidation in beef heifer calves with induced Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica pneumonia. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2003; 26:173179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Hanzlicek GA, White BJ, Mosier D, et al. Serial evaluation of physiologic, pathological, and behavioral changes related to disease progression of experimentally induced Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia in postweaned calves. Am J Vet Res 2010; 71:359369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Reeve-Johnson L. Relationships between clinical and pathological signs of disease in calves infected with Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica type A1. Vet Rec 2001; 149:549552.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Caswell JL & Archambault M. Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle. Anim Health Res Rev 2007; 8:161186.

  • 20.

    Hahn GL. Dynamic responses of cattle to thermal heat loads. J Anim Sci 1999; 77(suppl 2):1020.

  • 21.

    Olson BE, Wallander RT. Influence of winter weather and shelter on activity patterns of beef cows. Can J Anim Sci 2002; 82:491501.

  • 22.

    Robert B, White BJ, Renter D, et al. Determination of lying behavior patterns in healthy beef cattle by use of wireless accelerometers. Am J Vet Res 2011; 72:467473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Sowell BF, Bowman JGP, Branine ME, et al. Radio frequency technology to measure feeding behavior and health of feedlot steers. Appl Anim Behav Sci 1998; 59:277284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Clinical, behavioral, and pulmonary changes in calves following inoculation with Mycoplasma bovis

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66502.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66502.
  • | 3 Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66502.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66502.
  • | 5 Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66502.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66502.
  • | 7 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66502.
  • | 8 CEVA Biomune, 8906 Rosehill Rd, Lenexa, KS 66215.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical and behavioral changes in calves following inoculation with Mycoplasma bovis and evaluate relationships between those changes and pulmonary disease.

Animals—22 healthy Holstein steers.

Procedures—20 calves were inoculated intranasally with < 108 CFU or > 109 CFU of M bovis. Calves were assigned a clinical illness score (CIS) on a scale of 1 through 4 twice daily on the basis of severity of cough, labored breathing, and lethargy. For each calf, distance traveled and time spent near the waterer, feed bunk, or shelter were determined via a remote location monitoring device. Calves were euthanized and necropsied 22 days after inoculation.

Results—13 calves became clinically ill after challenge inoculation; 3 calves were euthanized within 20 days. Among all calves, consolidation was evident in 0% to 79.9% of the lungs; extent of lung consolidation did not differ between the challenge dose groups. Distance traveled and percentages of time spent in proximity to the feed bunk and shelter were associated with CIS; calves with more severe disease traveled less distance and spent less time at the feed bunk and more time in the shelter. Distance traveled by calves was negatively associated with extent of lung consolidation (< or ≥ 10% of lungs affected); this effect was modified by trial day.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Following inoculation with M bovis, calf behavior patterns were associated with both CIS and severity of pulmonary disease. Use of behavior monitoring systems may aid in recognition of respiratory tract disease in calves.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical and behavioral changes in calves following inoculation with Mycoplasma bovis and evaluate relationships between those changes and pulmonary disease.

Animals—22 healthy Holstein steers.

Procedures—20 calves were inoculated intranasally with < 108 CFU or > 109 CFU of M bovis. Calves were assigned a clinical illness score (CIS) on a scale of 1 through 4 twice daily on the basis of severity of cough, labored breathing, and lethargy. For each calf, distance traveled and time spent near the waterer, feed bunk, or shelter were determined via a remote location monitoring device. Calves were euthanized and necropsied 22 days after inoculation.

Results—13 calves became clinically ill after challenge inoculation; 3 calves were euthanized within 20 days. Among all calves, consolidation was evident in 0% to 79.9% of the lungs; extent of lung consolidation did not differ between the challenge dose groups. Distance traveled and percentages of time spent in proximity to the feed bunk and shelter were associated with CIS; calves with more severe disease traveled less distance and spent less time at the feed bunk and more time in the shelter. Distance traveled by calves was negatively associated with extent of lung consolidation (< or ≥ 10% of lungs affected); this effect was modified by trial day.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Following inoculation with M bovis, calf behavior patterns were associated with both CIS and severity of pulmonary disease. Use of behavior monitoring systems may aid in recognition of respiratory tract disease in calves.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Kelly's present address is Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica, 800 5th St NW, Fort Dodge, IA 50501.

Supported by CEVA Biomune Company.

Address correspondence to Dr. White (bwhite@vet.ksu.edu).