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Assessment of the long-term effect of vaccination on transmission of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in cattle herds hyperimmunized with glycoprotein E–deleted marker vaccine

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  • 1 Department of Comparative Physiology and Biometrics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ghent, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.
  • | 2 Department of Comparative Physiology and Biometrics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ghent, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.
  • | 3 Institute of Health and Society (IRSS), Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium.
  • | 4 Department of Animal Health, Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium.
  • | 5 General Direction, Statistics and Economic Information, SPF Economics, Middle Classes and Energy, Regentlaan 27, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
  • | 6 Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Groeselenberg 99, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
  • | 7 Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Veterinary Virology and Animal Viral Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, B-4000 Liège, Belgium.
  • | 8 Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Groeselenberg 99, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.

Abstract

Objective—To assess long-term effects and risk factors for the efficacy of hyperimmunization protocols against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) during a longitudinal field study of dairy and dairy-beef mixed farms.

Animals—Approximately 7,700 cows from 72 farms.

Procedures—Farms were assigned to 3 treatment groups (hyperimmunization groups [HIGs] 1 and 2, which were hyperimmunized with glycoprotein E [gE]–deleted marker vaccines, and a nonintervention group [NIG]). Cattle in HIG 1 were initially vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine, whereas cattle in HIG 2 were initially vaccinated with an inactivated-virus vaccine. Cattle in both HIGs received booster inoculations with inactivated-virus vaccines at 6-month intervals. The risk for gE seroconversion was compared among experimental groups via a shared frailty model with a piecewise constant baseline risk to correct for seasonal and secular effects.

Results—Risk for gE seroconversion significantly decreased over time for the HIGs, compared with the NIG. Seasonal changes in the risk of gE seroconversion were detected, with a higher risk during winter periods, compared with grazing periods. No significant difference was detected between HIGs 1 and 2. The only significant risk factor was the number of buildings for cattle on a farm; the higher the number of buildings, the lower the risk for gE seroconversion. Prevalence of IBR decreased over time in both HIGs but remained constant or increased in the NIG.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hyperimmunization via repeated administration of attenuated and inactivated-virus gE-deleted marker vaccines as well as inactivated-virus vaccines may provide a method for control of IBR.

Abstract

Objective—To assess long-term effects and risk factors for the efficacy of hyperimmunization protocols against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) during a longitudinal field study of dairy and dairy-beef mixed farms.

Animals—Approximately 7,700 cows from 72 farms.

Procedures—Farms were assigned to 3 treatment groups (hyperimmunization groups [HIGs] 1 and 2, which were hyperimmunized with glycoprotein E [gE]–deleted marker vaccines, and a nonintervention group [NIG]). Cattle in HIG 1 were initially vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine, whereas cattle in HIG 2 were initially vaccinated with an inactivated-virus vaccine. Cattle in both HIGs received booster inoculations with inactivated-virus vaccines at 6-month intervals. The risk for gE seroconversion was compared among experimental groups via a shared frailty model with a piecewise constant baseline risk to correct for seasonal and secular effects.

Results—Risk for gE seroconversion significantly decreased over time for the HIGs, compared with the NIG. Seasonal changes in the risk of gE seroconversion were detected, with a higher risk during winter periods, compared with grazing periods. No significant difference was detected between HIGs 1 and 2. The only significant risk factor was the number of buildings for cattle on a farm; the higher the number of buildings, the lower the risk for gE seroconversion. Prevalence of IBR decreased over time in both HIGs but remained constant or increased in the NIG.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hyperimmunization via repeated administration of attenuated and inactivated-virus gE-deleted marker vaccines as well as inactivated-virus vaccines may provide a method for control of IBR.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels, Belgium.

The authors thank Sophie F. Hamande, Benoît V. Maindiaux, and Frederic L. Sorgeloos for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Ampe (Bart.Ampe@ugent.be).