Influence of electrode position on cardioversion energy requirements during transvenous electrical cardioversion in horses

Erin E. Preiss BSC (Hons) Program, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

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Daniel G. Kenney Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

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M. Kimberly J. McGurrin Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

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Peter W. Physick-Sheard Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

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 BVSc, MSc

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate influence of electrode position on cardioversion energy (CE; energy delivered in the shock at which cardioversion was achieved) during transvenous electrical cardioversion (TVEC) in horses with atrial fibrillation.

Animals—37 horses with atrial fibrillation (41 cardioversion events).

Procedures—Records were reviewed to identify horses that underwent TVEC for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Signalment and CE were recorded. Electrode positions in the right atrium and pulmonary artery were identified on intraoperative radiographs. An orthogonal coordinate space was created, and electrode y- and z-axis coordinates and shadow lengths were determined. Trigonometric modeling was used to estimate x-axis electrode positions that resulted in observed shadows. Postmortem casts of catheterized horses were used to assess electrode paths and anatomic relationships. Model assumptions were tested by use of these and a theoretical data set. Relationships between signalment, electrode position, and CE were assessed via multivariate analysis.

Results—Sex and y-axis differences between electrode positions were significant predictors of CE. Population stratification based on examination of residuals improved model strength; populations differed in z-axis variables and in CE. Decreasing distance between electrodes and pulmonary artery electrode positions ventral to the right atrium were associated with increased CE. Agreement between estimated and actual x-axis coordinates was poor.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Optimal electrode positioning can reduce the energy requirement for successful TVEC and may eventually support application of TVEC under short-term IV anesthesia and potentially increase chances of treatment response. Further investigation into these relationships is warranted.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate influence of electrode position on cardioversion energy (CE; energy delivered in the shock at which cardioversion was achieved) during transvenous electrical cardioversion (TVEC) in horses with atrial fibrillation.

Animals—37 horses with atrial fibrillation (41 cardioversion events).

Procedures—Records were reviewed to identify horses that underwent TVEC for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Signalment and CE were recorded. Electrode positions in the right atrium and pulmonary artery were identified on intraoperative radiographs. An orthogonal coordinate space was created, and electrode y- and z-axis coordinates and shadow lengths were determined. Trigonometric modeling was used to estimate x-axis electrode positions that resulted in observed shadows. Postmortem casts of catheterized horses were used to assess electrode paths and anatomic relationships. Model assumptions were tested by use of these and a theoretical data set. Relationships between signalment, electrode position, and CE were assessed via multivariate analysis.

Results—Sex and y-axis differences between electrode positions were significant predictors of CE. Population stratification based on examination of residuals improved model strength; populations differed in z-axis variables and in CE. Decreasing distance between electrodes and pulmonary artery electrode positions ventral to the right atrium were associated with increased CE. Agreement between estimated and actual x-axis coordinates was poor.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Optimal electrode positioning can reduce the energy requirement for successful TVEC and may eventually support application of TVEC under short-term IV anesthesia and potentially increase chances of treatment response. Further investigation into these relationships is warranted.

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