Comparison of the effects of racemic ketamine and S-ketamine for anesthesia in Rheem gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica) and Subgutturosa gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa)

Olga Martin-Jurado Division of Anaesthesiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

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Rima Bektas Division of Anaesthesiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

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Anna Fahrion VPH-Institut, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.

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Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger Division of Anaesthesiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

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Sven Hammer Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, PO Box 44069, Doha, State of Qatar.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of racemic ketamine and S-ketamine in gazelles.

Animals—21 male gazelles (10 Rheem gazelles [Gazella subgutturosa marica] and 11 Subgutturosa gazelles [Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa]), 6 to 67 months old and weighing (mean±SD) 19 ± 3 kg.

Procedures—In a randomized, blinded crossover study, a combination of medetomidine (80 μg/kg) with racemic ketamine (5 mg/kg) or S-ketamine (3 mg/kg) was administered IM. Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and oxygen saturation (determined by means of pulse oximetry) were measured. An evaluator timed and scored induction of, maintenance of, and recovery from anesthesia. Medetomidine was reversed with atipamezole. The alternate combination was used after a 4-day interval. Comparisons between groups were performed with Wilcoxon signed rank and paired t tests.

Results—Anesthesia induction was poor in 2 gazelles receiving S-ketamine, but other phases of anesthesia were uneventful. A dominant male required an additional dose of S-ketamine (0.75 mg/kg, IM). After administration of atipamezole, gazelles were uncoordinated for a significantly shorter period with S-ketamine than with racemic ketamine. Recovery quality was poor in 3 gazelles with racemic ketamine. No significant differences between treatments were found for any other variables. Time from drug administration to antagonism was similar between racemic ketamine (44.5 to 53.0 minutes) and S-ketamine (44.0 to 50.0 minutes).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of S-ketamine at a dose 60% that of racemic ketamine resulted in poorer induction of anesthesia, an analogous degree of sedation, and better recovery from anesthesia in gazelles with unremarkable alterations in physiologic variables, compared with racemic ketamine.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of racemic ketamine and S-ketamine in gazelles.

Animals—21 male gazelles (10 Rheem gazelles [Gazella subgutturosa marica] and 11 Subgutturosa gazelles [Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa]), 6 to 67 months old and weighing (mean±SD) 19 ± 3 kg.

Procedures—In a randomized, blinded crossover study, a combination of medetomidine (80 μg/kg) with racemic ketamine (5 mg/kg) or S-ketamine (3 mg/kg) was administered IM. Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and oxygen saturation (determined by means of pulse oximetry) were measured. An evaluator timed and scored induction of, maintenance of, and recovery from anesthesia. Medetomidine was reversed with atipamezole. The alternate combination was used after a 4-day interval. Comparisons between groups were performed with Wilcoxon signed rank and paired t tests.

Results—Anesthesia induction was poor in 2 gazelles receiving S-ketamine, but other phases of anesthesia were uneventful. A dominant male required an additional dose of S-ketamine (0.75 mg/kg, IM). After administration of atipamezole, gazelles were uncoordinated for a significantly shorter period with S-ketamine than with racemic ketamine. Recovery quality was poor in 3 gazelles with racemic ketamine. No significant differences between treatments were found for any other variables. Time from drug administration to antagonism was similar between racemic ketamine (44.5 to 53.0 minutes) and S-ketamine (44.0 to 50.0 minutes).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of S-ketamine at a dose 60% that of racemic ketamine resulted in poorer induction of anesthesia, an analogous degree of sedation, and better recovery from anesthesia in gazelles with unremarkable alterations in physiologic variables, compared with racemic ketamine.

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