• 1.

    USDA. National economic cost of equine lameness, colic, and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in the United States. Information sheet No. N348.1001. Fort Collins, Colo: USDA APHIS Veterinary Services National Health Monitoring System, 2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Guide for veterinary service and judging of equestrian events. 4th ed. Lexington, Ky: American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1991;19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Keegan KG, Wilson DA, Wilson DJ, et al. Evaluation of mild lameness in horses trotting on a treadmill by clinicians and interns or residents and correlation of their assessments with kinematic gait analysis. Am J Vet Res 1998; 59: 13701377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Hewetson M, Christley RM, Hunt ID, et al. Investigations of the reliability of observational gait analysis for the assessment of lameness in horses. Vet Rec 2006; 158: 852858.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Fuller CJ, Bladon BM, Driver AJ, et al. The intra- and inter-assessor reliability of measurement of functional outcome by lameness scoring in horses. Vet J 2006; 171: 281286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Arkell M, Archer RM, Guitian FJ, et al. Evidence of bias affecting the interpretation of the results of local anesthetic nerve blocks when assessing lameness in horses. Vet Rec 2006; 159: 346349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Symonds KD, MacAllister CG, Erkert RS, et al. Use of force plate analysis to assess the analgesic effects of etodolac in horses with navicular syndrome. Am J Vet Res 2006; 67: 557561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Ishihara A, Bertone AL, Rajala-Schultz PJ. Association between subjective lameness grade and kinetic gait parameters in horses with experimentally induced forelimb lameness. Am J Vet Res 2005; 66: 18051815.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Keegan KG. Evidence-based lameness detection and quantification. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2007; 23: 403423.

  • 10.

    Bucher HHF, Savelberg HCCM, Schamhardt HC, et al. Head and trunk movement adaptations in horses with experimentally induced for or hind limb lameness. Equine Vet J 1996; 28: 7176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Barrey E, Hermelin M, Vaudelin JL, et al. Utilisation of an accelerometric device in equine gait analysis. Equine Vet J Suppl 1994; 17: 712.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Keegan KG, Yonezawa Y, Pai PF, et al. Telemeterized accelerometer-based system for the detection of lameness in horses. Biomed Sci Instrum 2002; 38: 107112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Keegan KG, Pai PF, Wilson DA, et al. A curve-fitting technique for evaluating head movement to measure forelimb lameness in horses. Biomed Sci Instrum 2000; 36: 23944.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Keegan KG, Pai PF, Wilson DA, et al. Signal decomposition method of evaluating head movement to measure induced forelimb lameness in horses trotting on a treadmill. Equine Vet J 2001; 33: 446451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Kramer J, Keegan KG, Kelmer G, et al. Objective determination of pelvic movement during hind limb lameness using a signal decomposition method and pelvic height differences. Am J Vet Res 2004; 65: 741747.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Keegan KG, Dent EV, Wilson DA, et al. Repeatability of subjective evaluation of lameness in horses. Equine Vet J 2010; 42: 9297.

  • 17.

    Weishaupt MA, Schatzman U, Staub R. Quantification of supportive forelimb lameness by recording movements of the horse's head during exercise, using an accelerometer. Pferdeheilkunde 1993; 9: 375377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Church EE, Walker AM, Wilson AM, et al. Evaluation of discriminant analysis based on dorsoventral symmetry indices to quantify hindlimb lameness during over ground locomotion in the horse. Equine Vet J 2009; 4: 304308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Pfau T, Ferrari M, Parsons K, et al. A hidden Markov model-based stride segmentation technique applied to equine inertial sensor trunk movement data. J Biomech 2008; 41: 216220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Pfau T, Robilliard J, Weller R, et al. Assessment of mild hindlimb lameness during over ground locomotion using linear discriminant analysis of inertial sensor data. Equine Vet J 2008; 38: 407413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Assessment of repeatability of a wireless, inertial sensor–based lameness evaluation system for horses

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 3 Department of Health Science, Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Hiroshima, 731-5193, Japan.
  • | 4 Department of Health Science, Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Hiroshima, 731-5193, Japan.
  • | 5 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 6 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 7 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 8 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 9 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

Abstract

Objective—To determine repeatability of a wireless, inertial sensor–based lameness evaluation system in horses.

Animals—236 horses.

Procedures—Horses were from 2 to 29 years of age and of various breeds and lameness disposition. All horses were instrumented with a wireless, inertial sensor-based motion analysis system on the head (accelerometer), pelvis (midline croup region [accelerometer]), and right forelimb (gyroscope) before evaluation in 2 consecutive trials, approximately 5 minutes apart, as the horse was trotted in a straight line. Signal-processing algorithms generated overall trial asymmetry measures for vertical head and pelvic movement and stride-by-stride differences in head and pelvic maximum and minimum positions between right and left sides of each stride. Repeatability was determined, and trial difference was determined for groups of horses with various numbers of strides for which data were collected per trial.

Results—Inertial sensor–based measures of torso movement asymmetry were repeatable. Repeatability for measures of torso asymmetry for determination of hind limb lameness was slightly greater than that for forelimb lameness. Collecting large numbers of strides degraded stride-to-stride repeatability but did not degrade intertrial repeatability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The inertial sensor system used to measure asymmetry of head and pelvic movement as an aid in the detection and evaluation of lameness in horses trotting in a straight line was sufficiently repeatable to investigate for clinical use.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Dent's present address is Bear River Veterinary Clinic, County Rd 107, Evanston, WY 83930.

Dr. Kellerman's present address is Homestead Veterinary Hospital, 3615 Bassett Rd, Pacific, MO 63069.

Supported by the E. Paige Laurie Endowed Program in Equine Lameness at the University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo; USDA Animal Health Formula Funds; the Merck-Merial Veterinary Research Scholars Program; and a subcontract with Equinosis LLC through the Phase 1 National Science Foundation Small Business Technology Transfer (IIP-STTR) program.

Address correspondence to Dr. Keegan (keegank@missouri.edu).